Geppeito and Pinocchio try to push their raft into the ocean when Xfonstro the whale opens his mouth to sneeze. The scene lasts barely four seconds on the screen and shows the amazing concept of what made a good-looking picture for this place in the film. The separate parts are:

A. Monstro's teeth and upper jaw.

B. Seagulls in distance.

C. Wave action on distant ocean.

D. Water running into mouth.

F. Water splashes over the teeth, raft, and characters.

G. Pinocchio and Gep-petto pushing the raft.

H. The kitten Figaro. Not shown: double-exposed smoke filled the top half of the scene, from the fire that Pinocchio started.

The "draft" of the picture records each scene by num-her, description, and footage, as well as who animated it. Sequence No. 10.7 of Pinocchio shows Scene I as 6 feet 4 frames and drawn by six animators.

as the pieces of an idea started to come together. Walt would start calling in the men who might do the work, earning it to a more advanced stage. "Hey. let's get Joe in here—and who's that little fellow who built that thing for us? You know, that guy from camera; get him in here. too. And see if you can get a musician, too; these guys will have to work together." Cameraman, carpenter, stylist, colorist. technician, artist— they formed teams as needed, with no monev for expenses, no time to research, only their own inventive minds and Walt's enthusiasm to guide them.

Once they were asked to build an arrangement that could hold separate layers of artwork at varying distances from a still camera, so that the ensuing photograph would have the appearance of depth. It was built of wood and glue and tape—as Bill McFadden said. "You couldn't build anything without tape, y'know." But it worked and Walt liked the result and suddenlv was talking about building another one. larger and more complicated, that might be used for shooting animation. This was more of a problem and called for engineering knowledge, but on the records it was built by Special Effects! And so the first multiplane camera was born.

Four years later the men were still working with tape and glue, but now they were creating exquisite, delicate scenes for the films. Fantasia was a particular challenge to their creative minds, with all of its unprecedented effects. To get wraiths rising from the graves in the first scene of "Night On Bald Mountain." they devised a method of reflecting the artwork onto a piece of bent tin. much like the mirrors in a fun house. It gave an eerie effect, but to avoid other reflections each frame had to be a three-nnnute time-exposure with the room completely dark. With the time needed to make all the moves and changes before the next frame could be shot, the men barely could do 16 frames an hour That w as only one foot of film, and some of the scenes were over 20 feet long!

Sitting there in the dark, hour after hour, they could not keep from nodding, but someone in the three-man crew always managed to keep things going by singing out the hour or the footage or the next move to be made. One of them remembered after an all-night session that he had heard. "Three o'clock." and a little later. "Four o'clock." but that the next number was "Six o'clock!" What had happened to five o'clock1 No one knew at first, but groggy confessions revealed that all three men had fallen asleep at the same time and slept for nearly two hours before some inner alarm awakened them.

Early in this exhausting schedule the final plan* were made for shooting the last scene in the picture It was the ending shot of the "Ave Maria" segment, which had run into several delays, putting it far down on the schedule. There had been many suggestions for the content of this crucial scene, ranging from stained glass windows to towering cloud formations that symbolized inner feelings of great magnitude. But Walt decided on a long, continuous scene, nearly 220 feet in length, that would start w ith an impression of the interior of a large Gothic cathedral. From there, the camera would move slowly and steadily through the dimly lit interior while a shaft of light dissolved in. cutting across the image. Then a vertical shaft of light would spread as giant doors opened on a fantasy world just

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