The exposure sheets were short and only rej enough footage for three or four beats to a page, aid Wilfred Jackson wanted to see the whole song spread out before him like sheet music, so he originated the "bar sheet." This often was called the "dope sheet" since it eventually contained all the dope on both the music and the actions, but its essential purpose was*? lay out the bars of music in long boxes that couldbe| viewed together. On these were the tempos of i!k songs, written in terms of the number of frames betweetij each beat, and a notation of the start of the musk, which part was verse and which chorus, any repe&| that might be used, and where the music might sun into a second song. Everything was penciled into thesr| boxes, even the location of sound effects and words of dialogue.
Along with this was written information about ihcj scenes, the starts and cuts and the pattern of actions With all the information in one location, it waseasytoj see how any change on one part would affect any of the other parts, and corrections could be made quite simply—on paper. Disaster followed when . forgot to correct the animator's exposure sheets cr] notify the cutter, or made any revision without tellitg] everyone concerned, but that sort of confusion*
spoiled. There were no 3-12 measures here, and considerably more work was required to find actions that fit the music, told the story, and still built a personality. A move that was right, visually, would seldom match the sound on the track at that point, and the animators had to become more like choreographers, trying to build a unified statement in movement rich in emotional content and with a cohesive flow—all within the confines of an established score. The visual material could not be choppy or fragmented; it had to have the same unity as the music.
In those first symphonies, the actions had been simple, staying with dance steps and runs that easily could be made to follow the beat of the music. But with Walt's insistence on humor and personality, the films built quickly into stories that demanded the acting match the tempo, too. This reached a peak in 1935 with The Band Concert, which combined well-known music with strong personalities and a situation played entirely in pantomime. It was a rare combination, reflecting still another use of music as language. As one producer said, "Who else would take a band concert out of Walt's boyhood, mix in 'William Tell' and 'Turkey in the Straw' and a Kansas cyclone, and come out with a performance that would enchant Toscanini?"4 (Typical of Walt, he did not stop there but began thinking of an even bigger use of the same principle. He called that one Fantasia.)
In addition to the stories that called for spirited music, there were sequences that called for a mood to be established by a special theme. In many instances, the feeling of this score would influence any further development to such an extent that it was dccided to record the sound first and work to its limitations. There is a special feeling in work that is done this way that is not found in other methods, but it is more expensive because of the demands it makes in all the creative departments.
Jàrtv normal in those days. Hook a line of music . . .
trttflthe notes and the staff lines, leaving this, w hich the bars, or measures, of the song.
fling to the metronome we determined the tempo land that decision gave us the number of frames ibeat: 8s. 9s. 10s. 16s, whatever. The structure ; song determined the number of beats to the bar. 4,or6. The more sophisticated rhythms were not sidered.
¡wrote up a song's musical beats like this. In this t. there are two beats of 12 frames to each bar.
A bar is thus 24X long.
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