Pastel And Pen Marks

Rolling a pastel stick across the paper leaves an uneven, almost organic mark, very well suited to drawing natural forms.

Pushing a pastel across the surface leaves a tapered mark that can imply recession into the distance away from the point of origin.

Cross-hatching with an ink pen creates an even yet lively tonal surface. Repeated passes can represent the densest shadows.

Rolling a pastel stick across the paper leaves an uneven, almost organic mark, very well suited to drawing natural forms.

Pushing a pastel across the surface leaves a tapered mark that can imply recession into the distance away from the point of origin.

Cross-hatching with an ink pen creates an even yet lively tonal surface. Repeated passes can represent the densest shadows.

Swift rhythmic movements with the edge of Dragging a pastel swiftly across the Brush drawing with ink leaves a clear, a pastel suggest energy and pick out the high surface produces a dynamic mark suitable precise, and fluid line with no jagged edges ground of the paper, adding surface interest. for applying broad swathes of tone. - perfect for gestural drawings.

Used on Its side In bold, horizontal strokes, pastel quickly evokes a dark sea horizon.

Wild shrubbery is described though a collection of twisted pastel marks.

Strong horizontal inward strokes lead the viewer's eye inward from the edge of the composition.

Coastal scene

A variety of pastel mark marking techniques has been used in this highly charged drawing, which captures a range of textures and directional dynamics.

Measuring and mapping

Getting the proportions of a subject right, and correctly representing the relationships between objects, are fundamental to the success of any representational drawing. This is particularly true of life drawing, where errors in the basics become ever more noticeable as the drawing progresses. Measuring and mapping before drawing is not essential, but it will help you avoid many lengthy redraws.

measuring the human form

You don't need a ruler to measure the proportions of your subject. A simple technique is to use a pencil, held at arm's length from your eye, to measure the length of the model's head, from the top of the crown to the base of the chin. This head-length then becomes the basic unit of measurement for all parts of the body, for example, a standing figure is around seven heads high.

using a pencil to map proportions

Hold up a pencil with your arm extended fully. With one eye closed, line up the tip of the pencil with the top of the model's head; use your thumb to mark the bottom of the chin. Be sure to take any further measurements from exactly the same spot.

Transfer your measurement to your drawing; you can use a similar technique to measure angles too.

Hold up a pencil with your arm extended fully. With one eye closed, line up the tip of the pencil with the top of the model's head; use your thumb to mark the bottom of the chin. Be sure to take any further measurements from exactly the same spot.

Transfer your measurement to your drawing; you can use a similar technique to measure angles too.

frameworks for the body

Draw two axes at right angles, and plot the positions of key points -joints of limbs - relative to the axes.

Check the distances of joints and limbs both from your axes and from one another.

Use multiple faint lines to build up the scaffold of the body and And its form.

Once you are sure of the sizes and relationships of the elements, strengthen the lines.

Draw two axes at right angles, and plot the positions of key points -joints of limbs - relative to the axes.

Check the distances of joints and limbs both from your axes and from one another.

Use multiple faint lines to build up the scaffold of the body and And its form.

Once you are sure of the sizes and relationships of the elements, strengthen the lines.

Measuring and mapping | 23

RELATiONSHiPS AND COMPOSiTiON

Whether you are working with a model or a still life, the placement of your subjects on the paper is key to success. Closely analyze which part of a subject lies in front of or overlaps another — things are not always as they seem at first glance.

Measure relative sizes with a pencil, and check this on the paper by looking closely at the negative spaces that emerge between items and forms — are they the right shapes? Use convenient verticals to check angles within the drawing.

Composition Shading

Directional marks make the vertical shading of the background distinct from the horizontal marks used for the foreground.

Still life Placement of objects close to the edges of the paper creates the Illusion that they are protruding from the plane of the drawing.

Directional marks make the vertical shading of the background distinct from the horizontal marks used for the foreground.

Vertical and horizontal elements in the scene -here a table - are a useful reference for assessing angles and relative positions.

Faint lines suggest distance.

Foreshortening Accurate measurement is particularly important when dealing with the reclining - and therefore highly foreshortened - human form. Keep checking the relationships between elements as you draw.

Faint lines suggest distance.

Feet are commonly drawn too small in a foreshortened pose.

Dynamism in the drawing is created by mixing strong verticals and

Negative space between the chair legs.

Negative space This deceptively simple drawing explores complex planar relationships. Examining the negative spaces between the elements enables you to unravel the jumble of elements.

Dynamism in the drawing is created by mixing strong verticals and

Negative space between the chair legs.

Drawing Illusion
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