Table of Contents

How To Sketch

Learn The Art Of Sketching

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Introduction 1

About This Book 1

Conventions Used in This Book 1

What You're Not to Read 2

Foolish Assumptions 2

How This Book Is Organized 2

Part I: Drawing Inspiration: Getting Started with Cartoons and Comics 2

Part II: Creating Cartoon Characters 3

Part III: Cartoon Designs 101: Assembling the Parts 3

Part IV: Cartooning 2.0: Taking Your Cartoons to the Next Level 3

Part V: The Part of Tens 3

Icons Used in This Book 4

Where to Go from Here 4

Part I: Drawing Inspiration: Getting

Started with Cartoons and Comics 5

Chapter 1: The Skinny on Cartoons and Comics 7

Understanding the Different Genres 8

Following familiar characters: Comic strips 8

Expressing a viewpoint: Editorial cartoons 9

Delivering the punch line: Gag cartoons 9

Getting Started with Drawing 10

Drawing a basic character's head 11

Sketching a character's body 11

Honing your skills 12

Peering into the Future of Cartoons 12

Understanding the changes 13

What the Web offers that syndicates don't 13

Chapter 2: Looking at the Different Cartooning Genres 15

Getting Funny with the Standard: Comic Strips 16

Eyeing a comic strip's characteristics 16

Watching the birth of an American art form 16

The modern funny papers 20

Grasping why comics are still popular 22

Making Readers Think: Editorial Cartoons 23

Eyeing an editorial cartoon's traits 23

Editorial cartooning: An American tradition 24

Sophisticated Humor: Gag Cartoons 26

Defining gag cartoon traits 26

Identifying two influential gaggers 27

New Yorker cartoons 28

Web Cartooning 31

Chapter 3: Getting Your Workspace Ready to Go 33

Searching for a Workspace 33

Looking at your options 34

Utilizing a small space 34

Setting Up Your Workspace 34

Making your workspace ergonomic 35

Choosing a practical workspace surface 35

Buying a chair that won't break your back 37

Lighting your way 38

Organizing your space 39

Getting the Right Supplies 39

Picking pens and pencils 40

Other drawing supplies 41

Visiting the Computer Store 42

Selecting the right computer 42

Customizing your hardware 43

Identifying the software you need 46

Chapter 4: Starting with the Drawing Basics 49

Putting Pencil to Paper 50

Knowing what pencil (and paper) to use 50

Going from lines to making shapes 51

Doing rough sketches 54

Tightening up your sketch 54

Grasping the Art of Inking 55

Understanding how using a brush differs from pens and pencils 56

Getting comfortable with using a brush 56

Inking 101: The how-to 56

Erasing sketch lines 58

Creating Tone and Texture 58

Shading 59

Crosshatching 62

Fixing Mistakes 63

Using an eraser 63

Mastering cut and paste 64

The joys of white correction fluid 64

Chapter 5: Coming Up with Ideas 65

Getting Inspired for Storyline Ideas: Just Open Your Eyes 65

Looking for and keeping track of ideas 66

Connecting ideas to your cartoon's theme 67

Eyeing some do's and don'ts to writing believable story lines 68

Keeping Your Sketchbook Close By 69

Why constant sketching keeps you sharp 70

Drawing stick figures: Cartooning shorthand 72

Adding Humor to Your Story Lines: Good Writing Trumps Bad Art 74

What constitutes a good joke: Timing is everything 75

Deciding whether cartoons have to be funny 77

Using loved ones to test your material 77

Taking Action When the Ideas Run Dry 78

Tying two topics together 78

Thinking outside the box versus conventionality 80

Part U: Creating Cartoon Characters 81

Chapter 6: Starting from the Top 83

Drawing the Head 83

Creating basic head shapes 84

Exaggerating and distorting the head 86

Placing the features 87

Drawing the head from all angles 89

Dotting the Eyes 91

Sketching the basic eye 91

Buggin' out eyes 92

Wearing glasses 93

Raising an eyebrow 94

Just by a Nose: Sketching the Schnoz 94

Drawing a basic nose 94

Considering various sizes and shapes 95

Can You Hear Me? Crafting the Ears 97

Drawing the actual ear 97

Looking at ear shapes and sizes 98

Drawing the Mouth 99

Crafting the mouth: The how-to 100

Focusing on all those teeth 100

Adding facial hair 101

Figuring out the jaw 102

Getting All Emotional: Look in the Mirror 103

Mad or angry face 103

Sad face 104

Happy or laughing face 104

Scared or surprised face 105

Chapter 7: From the Neck Down 107

Giving Your Characters Personality 107

Making your characters mirror your style 108

Caricaturing your characters 108

Building the Body: Drawing the Standard Character Type 109

Starting with circles 110

Moving circles for different looks 114

Drafting Arms and Hands 119

Drawing arms 120

Lending a hand with fingers 121

A Leg to Stand on: Drawing Legs and Feet 122

Starting on the right foot 123

Spacing the legs and hips 124

Deciding on Dress 125

Drawing your character's garb 126

Dressing for the occasion 127

Adding accessories 128

Chapter 8: Designing Human Cartoon Characters 129

Understanding Why Developing a Regular Cast of Characters Is Key 129

Pinpointing the main characters 130

Including supporting cast 130

Creating Your Core Group 130

Centering on the family 131

Keeping your characters consistent 132

Experimenting with Male Body Types 133

Dear old dad 133

TV news anchor or used car salesman 136

The geek/nerdy guy 139

Trying Different Female Body Types 142

The modern mom 143

The matronly grandmother 145

The girl next door 148

Creating Those Crazy Kids 151

Talking babies 151

The little kid 154

The bully 156

Chapter 9: Giving Inanimate Objects Personality 159

Cartooning Everything, Including the Kitchen Sink 160

Drawing the world around your characters 160

Caricaturing just about anything 160

Having Fun with Household Items 161

That comfy ol' sofa 161

The lounge chair 163

Animating appliances 165

Calling All Cars 168

The family car 168

The sports car 170

Truckin' down the road 172

Putting a Face on an Inanimate Object 175

The talking car 175

Making the toaster talk 178

Smiling sunshine 180

Chapter 10: Exploring Anthropomorphism: Creating

Animals and Other Creatures That Talk 183

Pets Are People, Too! Drawing Classic Cartoon Animals 183

The family dog 184

That darn cat 187

Pet goldfish 189

The World Is a Zoo 191

Puts his neck out for others: The giraffe 192

Acts like the tough guy: Mr. Rhino 194

They Came from Outer Space 197

Beaming down aliens 197

Cyborgs and droids 199

Classic robots 201

Chapter 11: Drafting Editorial Cartoon Characters 205

Defining Editorial Cartoons 205

Understanding the Pen's Strength: What an

Editorial Cartoonist Does 207

Finding Ideas and Forming an Opinion 208

Setting the Scene for What You Have to Say 209

Grasping the art of visual metaphors 210

Using stereotypes to convey your message 211

Letting the art make your point 211

Going the altie route 212

Drafting Believable Caricatures 212

Knowing how to capture a likeness 213

Drawing a president: The how-to 214

Creating Classic Editorial Cartoon Characters 217

The Republican Party elephant 217

The Democratic Party donkey 220

Uncle Sam 222

Part 111: Cartoon Designs 101: Assembling the Parts 227

Chapter 12: Putting Everything in Your Comics in Perspective 229

Grasping What Perspective Is 229

Starting with the vanishing point and horizon line 230

Introducing 1-2-3 point perspective 231

Recognizing the wrong perspective 233

Putting Perspective to Practical Use 234

Sketching common, everyday objects in perspective 234

Juggling multiple elements in perspective 238

Looking down: A bird's-eye view 238

Putting Your Characters in Perspective 240

Lining up body shapes 241

Drawing from the top of the head down 244

Drawing characters in the correct scale 245

Chapter 13: The Art of Lettering 249

Preparing to Letter 249

Appreciating the role lettering plays 250

Spending time perfecting your skills 251

Selecting the right pens 251

Making Lettering Part of the Art 252

Knowing the differences between handwritten and computer fonts 252

Placing your lettering 253

Fitting in your lettering 254

Utilizing word balloons 255

Going the Simple Route: Picking a Type Font 256

Going the Hand Lettering Route 257

Creating your own unique fonts 257

Creating drama with action words 260

Keeping Track of Your Spacing 261

Chapter 14: Directing the Scene 263

Eyeing the Importance of Layout 263

Planning your layout 264

Comparing foreground and background 265

Telling the story in shadow 267

Creating visual drama 267

Setting the Scene 268

Details make the difference in a scene 268

Creating your scene 269

Part JV: Cartooning 2.0: Taking Your Cartoons to the Next Level 273

Chapter 15: Cartooning in the Digital Age 275

Digitally Formatting Your Drawings 275

Choosing a scanner 276

Scanning your work into the computer 277

Setting the correct resolution 277

Selecting a Photoshop mode: Bitmap, grayscale, RGB, and CMYK 278

Getting a Grasp on Photoshop Basics 281

Becoming acquainted with your toolbar 281

Cleaning up your artwork 283

Coloring and Shading in Photoshop 287

Converting your bitmap file 287

Working in layers 288

Coloring with Photoshop tools 290

Shading and highlighting with the Burn and Dodge tools 291

Saving Your Work 292

E-Mailing Your Art Files 293

Chapter 16: Making Cartooning Your Livelihood 295

Deciding to Go Full Time 295

Evaluating whether you can handle the career 296

Looking for honest feedback 297

Checking with the professionals 297

Knowing the Market 298

Doing your initial research 298

Starting locally 299

Selling to the syndicates 300

Grasping How Syndication Works 300

Creating a Winning Submission Package 302

Attaching a straightforward cover letter 302

Choosing samples of your work 303

Dealing with the Ups and Downs 303

Coping with rejection 304

Welcome to success (but don't expect much) 305

Turning Your Hobby into a Business 306

Meeting the criteria to call yourself a business 307

Keeping the IRS happy 308

Maximizing deductions 308

Putting in a fax and separate phone line 309

Keeping accurate records 310

Promoting Your Work Online 310

Why being on the Web is important 311

How to make a splash on the Web 311

Part V: The Part of Tens 313

Chapter 17: Ten Steps to a Finished Comic Strip 315

Researching the Market 315

Developing an Idea 316

Composing a Theme and Main Idea 316

Creating Your Characters 317

Designing the Setting 317

Writing Your Scripts 318

Penciling It Out 318

Slinging the Ink 319

Lettering 319

Scanning In Your Work 320

Chapter 18: Ten Secrets to Breaking in to a Cartooning Career 321

Making the Decision to Pursue Your Dreams 322

Belonging to a Syndicate 322

Jumping into the World of Comic Books 323

Marketing to Greeting Card Companies 324

Selling Your Work to Magazines 324

Joining the Association of American Editorial Cartoonists 325

Being Part of the National Cartoonists Society 326

Looking at the Most Popular Cartoon Site on the Web 326

Checking Out Cartoon Blogs 327

Reading about Cartooning 327

Index 329

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Freehand Sketching An Introduction

Freehand Sketching An Introduction

Learn to sketch by working through these quick, simple lessons. This Learn to Sketch course will help you learn to draw what you see and develop your skills.

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