In the- drawings on Plates 11 and 12 are other applications of shadows. They appear under the collar, lapels, buttons, pocket flaps, vest, coat tails, belts, trouser bottoms, and under the spats on the shoes, and under the shoes. Shadows under the shoes aid in making the feet appear in contact with the ground. The right foot of the football player, Figure 5, Plate 11, would appear on the ground if an appropriately drawn shadow was drawn just back of the toe. As it is, both feet are off the ground.

Just as shadows are used to make the feet contact the ground, so are they used to show that they are off the ground. Figure 1 on Plate 12 illustrates this point. Notice that these cross hatch lines are drawn so that the shadow seems to be laying flat on the ground. If the shading lines were drawn vertically and horizontally they would not make a satisfactory shadow. With the lines drawn vertically and horizontally the shadow would not appear flat on the ground, but would appear as if in the air, resting on its edge. Now if there was a house or board fence directly back of this figure, and in a line parallel with the direction this man is running, on which his shadow was cast, then the shadow would be drawn with vertical and hori^ntal lines. In that case the shadow would have the approximate shape of this figure in silhouette.

Shadows that are not in perspective should conform to the shape of the object from which the shadow is cast. In Figure 3 on Plate 10, notice that the black shadow under the crows nest follows the curvature of the mast. The line shading on the mast, crows nest, and telescope also bring out the surface direction, or curvature of the surface on which the shadows fall. Curved strokes are essential in representing rounded objects, and straight lines in representing plane surfaces. Surface direction is represented by lines drawn in the same general direction as the surface direction.

The same direction of light and shadow should be maintained throughout a composition. That is, if one object in the composition is lighted from the East with the shadow cast Westward, all other objects in the same composition should be lighted and shaded accordingly from the same direction. This is an error often made by beginners. Although absolute accuracy is not necessary in cartoons as it is in the more serious arts, gross incongruities will ruin an otherwise good cartoon. Therefore, the beginner should watch carefully for such errors and correct them.

Chapter VIII


Technique is the method of performance in art; in other words» the style or method used in producing a work of art.

In caricaturing the purpose of the drawing may influence the technique of the artist, or rather may influence the artist in choosing the technique. For example, a caricature drawn for newspaper reproduction is usually drawn with pen and ink lines «similar to the drawings on Plates 8, 13, and 16. Some artists use lithographic Pencils on a specially prepared, pebbled surfaced board. Ripley of "Believe It Or Not" fame produces his drawings by this method. Wash is seldom used in this country for newspaper drawings.

A large number of caricatures are used in sports cartoons for newspapers. Sports cartoons may of course illustrate various sports, such as: boxing, baseball, basketball, football, golf, hunting, fishing, horseback riding, and others. Often in these humorous drawings the central figure is drawn with a small body and a large caricatured head, somewhat as the caricatures on Plates 8, 13, and 16. Around this central figure are drawn smaller action figures illustrating one or more sports. Names, dates, comments and other lettering and details are placed so as to make a good composition.

Somewhat the same technique is employed in political cartoons, in which Presidents, Vice-Presidents, Senators, Congressmen, Cabinet Members, Governors, and other statesmen and prominent men may be caricatured. Here again the purpose of the drawing may determine the way it should be drawn. By "purpose of the cartoon" is meant whether it is intended to aid or injure the one caricatured. If it is to harm the caricatured, naturally he will be represented differently from what he would otherwise. Figures 1, 4, and 5 on Plate 3 represents the Ex'Kaiser as a rather stern, ruthless, and strong willed monarch. There is no doubt that he is stern and strong willed, but not so terrible as these caricatures represent him. Figures 2 and 3 on the same

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