corner of the mouth should be elevated on the side on which the eyebrow is down.

The eyebrows in Pain are knotted somewhat as in anger. The nose is wrinkled and the mouth is-opened. Note particularly the eyes and mouth. Such mouths as are used in the illustrations of fright and surprise would not be suitable here.

Laughter is very similar to smiling. The only difference being, the brows are higher, the eyes more closed, and the mouth opened wider. In Uproarious Laughter the nose moves upward to make room for the mouth to stretch big and wide, showing teeth, tongue, tonsils, or what you will.

Stupidity is expressed by drawing the eyes about half closed as in the illustration, and the mouth drawn down on one side. Drunkenness is expressed much the same. Especially the eyes.

In the illustration of Weeping note how the eyebrows are drawn. The eyes are partly, or entirely closed, and tears are drawn to help the expression.

Study the illustrations of Anticipation and Contentment. Note how the brows, eyes, nose, and mouth are drawn.

Ithough these expressions are suitable for cartoons, expressions in ozficatures are seldom exaggerated as much as the illustrations on PWte 4. They were drawn this way so that you might more easily see trow to represent these many expressions.

A very good thing for beginners is to study the expressions used in some of the better comic strips. Popeye, and Moon Mullins are especially good in this respect. Expression should be suited to action and vice versa. For example, a head and face with an expression of fright should have a body with the characteristic action of fright; that is, fingers far apart, feet off the ground, etc.

On Plate 5 are some reproductions of caricatures in various expressions and poses of s<5me rather famous men: Adolph Hitler and Admiral Coonte;. Figure 1 has a stern look obtained by representing the mouth, or really the mustache, in a straight line. In Figures 2 and 3 note that the same general principles were used as in the expressions, "Smile" and "Anger" on Plate 4. Figure 4 is a two thirds front view caricature of Hitler, smiling. Figure 5 is a profile of Hitler, angry. His nose trouble (mustache) takes on a new aspect in this drawing; that of a rather stiff brush perhaps. In Fig. 6 he has a grouch, while in Fig. 7 he is rather calm. Figures 8 and 9 are to illustrate that animals can be drawn with almost any expression. However, expression is more difficult with some animals than with others.

Chapter IV

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