draftsman, whereas Van Gogh and the impressionists were great colorists, their drawing having little to do with the success of their work. It is not often that a generation will produce a man who excels in every department of art, or one who produces work having all the combined elements of beauty. Da Vinci was remarkable in this respect, and so of course was Michelangelo, whose paintings and sculptures were equally masterful. When we understand this we can have a great deal more tolerance than most of us have at the start for all art.

We usually find that when a man is stimulated by the love of certain aspects of life, he becomes proficient in presenting these. In the popular field there is the English artist A. J. Munnings, whose paintings of horses have brought him interna tional fame. Munnings became popular not only because of his knowledge of horses but because of his ability to put his horses into a setting with total relationship and understanding, in the same-light, with the same good observation throughout the picture. There have been many painters of horses, but I know of none in this century who could paint them and their surroundings quite so well. On the other hand, artists like Degas and Manet, in the last century, made many studies of the racetrack in a far livelier style than Munnings'.

Dufy, in this century, has furthered the impressionist tradition. Modern artists draw for expression and accentuation of poignant faces, and the result can be better than if they stuck entirely to the actual. Their work departs from "photographic" representation. In this respect, it has always been my contention that proportion appears to our two eyes quite differently from the way it appears to the single lens of the camera. Certainly the camera distorts considerably when it is too close to an object.

An excellent way to draw is to make a most careful drawing in as true proportions as possible, then make a second drawing from the first, in stead of going back to life. In the second drawing we try to get the essence of the first, taking liberties in the streamlining of the contours, adding blockiness to forms that seem too round, flattening forms to produce more design, changing the proportions if we think we can make them more expressive. Above all, we can eliminate much insignificant detail and stress simplicity.

If you are using a photograph, instead of work-\ ing directly from it to the painting make your own drawings from the photograph first and work from them. In this way you arc carrying your own individuality into the painting rather than merely duplicating the photograph. If you need to refer to the photograph to check values or other details, it is there to help you. But by making a free interpretation, based on the images in the photograph, you will get a better picture than you would by slavishly copying everything the photograph shows.

The way you draw characterizes your work. It is one of its chief means of identification, and has positive value for you and for no one else. For this reason, if for no other, it is foolish to allow another artist's style of drawing to influence you too much. Drawing continually from photographs can be equally bad. If you draw from life the chances are that your work will contain much more individuality than it ever will if you use ready-made drawings or paintings from which proportions can be traced and copied exactly.

A drawing or painting is often more interesting when parts are left unfinished; when certain details are merely suggested by a few pencil or brush strokes. The detail and finish in the other areas will stand out in fine contrast.

A fallacy to which many artists subscribe is that a thing must be depicted so because it is so. If this were necessary, it would deprive us all from using any imagination. Truth can be dramatized, made simpler, glorified, and interpreted according to individual appreciation. The good writer does this all the time. He sticks to essential

Van Gogh ... sacrificed much to the thing that seemed to enthrall him most-vibrating color

Road with Cypresses by Vincent Van Gogh, museum of modern art, new york city.

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