Issuing drawings

It has already been noted that the drawing register is not a convenient document for recording the issue of drawings to others, neither, although it is sometimes used for this purpose, is the drawing itself. Indeed, one should first start by questioning the need for such a record in the first place. That drawings, both on completion and on subsequent revision, should go to the people who need them, is perhaps self-evident. Yet instances abound of site staff working from out-of-date information,...

The structure of working drawings

Every set of working drawings consisting of more than one sheet is structured, for it represents a more or Drawings showing the extent of each trade's involvement. A 'construction manual' describing, by means of annotated drawings, the way in which each trade is to operate and which is explicit enough to ensure that no local querying or decision-making will be necessary. An objective and realistic description of the quality standards required and the methods to be employed. Drawings giving an...

Architectural CAD packages or programs

Other programs may use different terms.) These are CAD programs with capabilities beyond the drawing of simple lines, arcs and text. They have additional capabilities specific to the architectural and building industries and usually allow a 3D model of the building to be created from intelligent 'objects' rather than simple entities. Attribute A special type of text entity, included within a block definition that can be used to hold information about that block....

What does it cost

As to the cost of introducing (and indeed of operating) new drawing methods one is on less certain ground. Certainly all the available feedback suggests that it is unusual for a practice to revert to unstructured working drawings once it has started producing structured sets, which seems to indicate that at least the structured set is not so overwhelmingly expensive to produce as to render it uneconomic in practice. Short of carrying out parallel drawing exercises using two methods and...

Conversion alteration and rehabilitation

Reflected Ceiling Frame

It is now necessary to look at the methods described previously and to see how far they are applicable to the description of work to existing buildings. To dispose of the simple matters first, straightforward extensions to buildings present no problem. They are in every respect new pieces of building and there is no 3.24 The openings schedule shown in 3.21 extended to give information about ironmongery sets reason why the methods adopted for any other new building and the conditions relating to...

Activity drawings

The provision of a new door in the existing brick wall, given as an example in the section on conversions and alterations, was an instance of an activity-oriented approach to the provision of building information. Activity 1, involving the cutting of the opening and insertion of the lintel, was rightly regarded as being distinct and of a different nature from activity 2, which embraces the fixing of a new door and frame. The two activities were separate and complete in themselves they were...

Introducing new methods

When Working Drawings Handbook first appeared in 1982 the concept of structured drawings was alien to many drawing offices. Their number has now diminished, but the following notes are intended for offices which have still not taken the plunge. The introduction of structured drawings into an office which hitherto has managed without them requires some thought. There must be many offices which, whilst agreeing in principle that their work could be improved by rationalisation of their working...

Site plans

Manhole Inspection Data Form

The functions of the site plan are to show The location of the building or buildings in relation to their surroundings. The topography of the site, with both existing and finished levels. 2.22 A typical site plan. Information is given about new and existing levels as well as directions as to where other information may be found. (The information about levels is given here because the plan is to a sufficiently large scale and the small amount of earth moving makes it unlikely to form a separate...

Some principles affecting scheduling

Their primary function is to identify and list components possessing common characteristics e.g. windows, doors, manhole covers, etc. They should not attempt to provide comprehensive information about the component they should serve rather as an index to where the relevant information may be found. They should initiate a simple search pattern for the retrieval of component, sub-component and assembly information. They are only worth providing if the component in question has more than one...

Subcomponent drawings

These have a limited use and often the information they convey will be better shown on the component drawing. There are instances, however particularly when a range of components is being dealt with of which the sizes and appearance differ but the basic construction remains constant when it may be more economical to present details of the construction on a separate drawing. For example, 3.9 shows two doorsets of different sizes and types. The basic sections from which they are fabricated are...

Block libraries templates

The CAD equivalent of drawing templates is the block library. Dedicated architectural CAD programs will come complete with their own 2D and 3D block and symbol libraries. These programs will allow you to select 4.8 Examples of plastic cut-out templates available commercially symbols or component drawings from menus and insert them in your drawings where needed. The more sophisticated programs will add the inserted components to automatically generated schedules. Several generic block and symbol...

Drawing sheet size

The international 'A' series of paper sizes is now universally accepted, and all drawing and printed sheets used in the office will conform to its requirements. It originates in the ingenious concept of a rectangle having an area of 1 m2, the length of whose sides are in the proportion 1 V2 (4.4). The dimensions of this rectangle will be found to be 1189 x 841 mm and by progressively halving the larger dimension each time, a reducing series of rectangles is produced, in which the proportions of...

General arrangement sections

General Arrangement Plans

General arrangement plans in effect constitute a series of horizontal cross-sections through the building, spaced out so that one is taken at every floor level. This spacing is reasonable, since in practice the appearance of the horizontal section is most likely to differ from floor to floor and unlikely to differ between floor and ceiling. 2.16 Elevation as a secondary reference to window components. The reference S 31 leads back to the external seconday elements schedule, where the components...

Floor plans

Assembly Floor Layout

There are three situations to consider General arrangement location drawing designed to show a single building element and what it should contain. The general arrangement drawing designed to be complete in itself i.e. a drawing which in CI SfB Table 1 terminology would be described as 2.1 The basic plan from which the elemental drawings shown in Chapter 1 were produced 1.14, 1.15 and 1.16 'The project in general' and coded -- . Clearly this type of drawing would only arise on the smallest and...

Guide to these Drawings

The drawings in this project have been arranged in the following manner 1.0 All information in the drawing set is divided into five basic categories of drawing. These are relating for example to windows General arrangement drawing coded G showing where anything is e.g. where a particular window is located in the building. This includes general arrangement plans and elevations, locating all major building elements walls, doors, windows, etc. and indicating where more detailed information may be...

Roof plans

Roof Level Plan Cad

Roofs particularly if they are flat roofs are essentially just another floor and it might be thought pedantic to introduce separate codes for them. Admittedly quantity surveyors and others concerned with elemental cost analysis require the distinction, but drawing codes do not always help here. Is 2.11 a roof plan of the factory, for example, or is it a floor plan of the tank room It should be treated as a floor plan and coded accordingly as 'level number . . .'. This method of referring to all...

Uniclass Table G

This is the system set out in the 2003 CPI Code of Procedure, and as such has the advantage of being consistent in its terminology with the Common Arrangement of Work Sections. The National Building Specification operates under the Common Arrangement. Having said that, it should be pointed out that the Uniclass headings relate to building elements, while the Common Arrangement is specifically materials-oriented. Uniclass Table G Table II is an attempt to reconcile these divergent objectives,...

Conventions for doors and windows

Drawing Symbols Double Doors

Double leaf, each leaf single opposite action Vertical pivot opening edge should be stated Horizontal pivot bottom edge opens out unless otherwise stated Top hung casement opening out unless otherwise stated Bottom hung hopper opening in unless otherwise stated Convention assumes all windows are viewed from the outside

CISfB

An alternative method is in existence which fulfils most of the requirements of an elemental structuring system and which has the advantage of being already well established within both the profession and the industry. This is the CI SfB method of classification, and while it has its detractors, who legitimately point to certain weaknesses in detail, it has so many advantages in logic and flexibility that on balance it must be recommended. The CPI documents accept it as a viable alternative to...

General arrangement plansprimary elements

Simple Building Drawing

Note that CI SfB Table 1 offers the following choice within the general summary code 2- 22 Internal walls, partitions 28 Building frames, other primary elements. In the larger of the two buildings Project A the decision was made to confine the architect's information about primary elements to a single 2- drawing. A decision was made at about the same time in relation to the smaller and simpler Project B to sub-divide the primary elements to a greater degree. Since the reasons for arriving at...

Coding assembly drawings

Assembly Drawing Window Opening

A complete system for coding the drawing package is discussed in Chapter 5 but a note here on the coding of the drawings illustrated in 3.17, 3.18 and 3.20 may be helpful. The general arrangement sections 3.17 are coded G for general arrangement 2- for primary elements see notes on general arrangement sections earlier for the reasoning on this and 017, 018 and 019 because that is their sequence in that particular series. The references in the circles are to external wall details or to external...

Component drawings

Timber Clad Infill Panels Between Brick

A component may be defined as any item used in a building which emanates from a single source of supply and which arrives on site as a complete and self-contained unit, whose incorporation into the building requires only its fixing to another component or components. Thus, a window is clearly a component, as is a manhole cover, a door, a section of pre-cast concrete coping, a mirror. So, for that matter, is a brick. A brick wall would be an assembly. Two types of component should be...

The plan of work

The RIBA Plan of Work was illustrated in Chapter 1 as constituting the basic discipline within which the manifold activities of the architect are contained. Against each stage were noted the major aspects of work dealt with at that stage which will have a bearing on the working drawing process or which will be influenced by it. The plan of work is sometimes criticised as being doctrinarian and unrelated to the harsh facts of professional life. Certainly, in practice there are constant pressures...

Prerequisites for stage F

Cad Trees With Shadows

There is a basic minimum of information which needs to be available before embarking on stage F and this should certainly include the following final set of design drawings stage D record of statutory approvals stages D and E key detailing in draught stage E room data sheets stages C to E outline specification applicable trade literature library of standard details drawing register design team network drawing office programme These items are dealt with in detail below. Final design set stage D...

Room data sheets

Assembly Drawing Example

The advantages of room-by-room scheduling as a medium for conveying information about internal finishes and fittings have been noted earlier. The gradual collection during stage E of such information into a source document of comparable format will clearly assist in the preparation of such schedules at stage F. Whether this is done on a copy of the floor plan or on a series of individual sheets representing each room or room type, is a decision which will be made in the light of the size and...

The assembly drawing

Plasterer Drawing

The juxtaposition of two or more components constitutes an assembly, and depending on the complexity of the arrangement and on how far it may be thought to be self-evident from other information contained elsewhere in the set, it will need to be drawn at an appropriate 3.7 Shelving treated as a component rather than as an assembly. An example of common sense overriding too rigid theories of classification 3.8 Component detail of concrete sill 3.9 Component drawing of different door-sets all...

The drawing register

Sfb Drawing Codes

The drawing register is a key document in the proper organisation of a working drawing project and as such needs to be something rather more than the loose sheet of paper with a scribbled list of drawing numbers and titles which sometimes suffices. After all, it serves a multitude of purposes, being at various times a declaration of intent, a record of performance and, in the event of dispute on abandonment of the project after commencement of the working drawings, possibly a legal document. In...

CAD considerations

Ground Layer Drawings For Plans

The addition of status coding is a useful adjunct to the issue of CAD files also, the status reference being added to the layer naming convention reference A practice might also be maintaining multiple copies of a drawing file on different computers, or in different sub-directories on the same computer some may be back-up copies in case of hard disk failure some may represent different stages in the evolution of the design. For internal purposes a practice will need to know more about a drawing...

Size of drawing office team

Stage Production Information Drawings

The right size and structure of the team is all-important, and in many ways it is a case of the smaller the better. Any increase over a team of one starts to invoke the law of diminishing returns and as the numbers increase so do the problems of control and communications. On the other hand, the diversity of work demanded by most building projects coupled with the constant and remorseless pressures of the overall programme mean that too small a team lacks the necessary flexibility of response....

Homemade systems

It is not difficult to devise your own systems to meet these requirements. Indeed, in practice many offices do, varying the method each time to suit the complexity of the job in hand. Within the primary general arrangement assembly component framework, for instance, it is possible to divide the drawings on a small project into, say, brickwork series B , windows series W , doors series D , etc. The precise method of sub-division and of coding is of less importance than recognising the existence...

Pictorial views

The use of perspective sketches, axonometric and exploded views should not be overlooked as a means of conveying information which might be difficult to document in more conventional forms. The ability of CAD to produce three-dimensional information is of obvious benefit here. Nor should the value of pictorial elevations, perspectives, photo montages and models be discounted as an aid to the contractor. Photographs of existing buildings are invaluable to an estimator when 3.21 Useful format for...

Dimensioning

Drawing Conventions For Timber

That this is a more complex subject than may appear at first sight may be illustrated by a simple example. Consider a timber window set in a prepared opening in an external wall. Unless the wall is to be built up around the window frame, in which case the frame itself will 4.9 The conventions shown are contained in computer software and may be selected as required for the drawing being undertaken. Reproduced by courtesy of Autodesk Ltd serve as a template for the opening, the architect will be...

Drawing conventions

Orthographic Drawing Bsi

In the same way that line thickness is influenced by considerations of scale and the relative importance of the objects delineated, so too is the degree of detail by which various elements are represented. The manner in which a door or a window is shown on a 1 20 assembly drawing is not necessarily appropriate to their representation on a 1 100 general arrangement plan. As always, common sense and absolute clarity of expression are the criteria. If a door frame is detailed 4.6 Overlapping...

Outline specification

The case is argued elsewhere in this handbook for a specification which is an integral part of the production documentation rather than the afterthought which puzzled site staff often assume it to have been. If drawings are to be freed of the detailed written descriptions they are frequently made to carry, it is implicit that this information must be conveyed to the contractor by other means. Indeed, the philosophy of the National Building Specification is reliant upon the geometry of the...