The structure of working drawings

Every set of working drawings consisting of more than one sheet is structured, for it represents a more or Drawings showing the extent of each trade's involvement. A 'construction manual' describing, by means of annotated drawings, the way in which each trade is to operate and which is explicit enough to ensure that no local querying or decision-making will be necessary. An objective and realistic description of the quality standards required and the methods to be employed. Drawings giving an...

Architectural CAD packages or programs

Other programs may use different terms.) These are CAD programs with capabilities beyond the drawing of simple lines, arcs and text. They have additional capabilities specific to the architectural and building industries and usually allow a 3D model of the building to be created from intelligent 'objects' rather than simple entities. Attribute A special type of text entity, included within a block definition that can be used to hold information about that block....

What does it cost

As to the cost of introducing (and indeed of operating) new drawing methods one is on less certain ground. Certainly all the available feedback suggests that it is unusual for a practice to revert to unstructured working drawings once it has started producing structured sets, which seems to indicate that at least the structured set is not so overwhelmingly expensive to produce as to render it uneconomic in practice. Short of carrying out parallel drawing exercises using two methods and...

Conversion alteration and rehabilitation

It is now necessary to look at the methods described previously and to see how far they are applicable to the description of work to existing buildings. To dispose of the simple matters first, straightforward extensions to buildings present no problem. They are in every respect new pieces of building and there is no 3.24 The openings schedule shown in 3.21 extended to give information about ironmongery sets reason why the methods adopted for any other new building and the conditions relating to...

Activity drawings

The provision of a new door in the existing brick wall, given as an example in the section on conversions and alterations, was an instance of an activity-oriented approach to the provision of building information. Activity 1, involving the cutting of the opening and insertion of the lintel, was rightly regarded as being distinct and of a different nature from activity 2, which embraces the fixing of a new door and frame. The two activities were separate and complete in themselves they were...

Materials for manual draughting

Detail paper has the great advantage of being cheap and, because it offers a semi-opaque background, pleasant and satisfying to draw on, particularly in pencil. It is best suited to the preparation of drafts for subsequent tracing into final drawings, where the original sheet may be expected to have a limited life, and where any prints taken from it will be for internal exchange of information among team members, and also for rapidly produced pencil details (accompanying architects'...

Introducing new methods

When Working Drawings Handbook first appeared in 1982 the concept of structured drawings was alien to many drawing offices. Their number has now diminished, but the following notes are intended for offices which have still not taken the plunge. The introduction of structured drawings into an office which hitherto has managed without them requires some thought. There must be many offices which, whilst agreeing in principle that their work could be improved by rationalisation of their working...

Status coding

As has been noted earlier, many drawings perform different functions at different stages in their life, and some system of identifying their function at a given moment is a useful adjunct to a coding system. One such method is to use the letter reference of the appropriate RIBA stage of work in conjunction with the drawing number, as follows E Detail design drawing. Any working drawing up to the time it is frozen for issue to the quantity surveyor, when it becomes G Drawing reconciled with...

Site plans

Manhole Inspection Data Form

The functions of the site plan are to show The location of the building or buildings in relation to their surroundings. The topography of the site, with both existing and finished levels. 2.22 A typical site plan. Information is given about new and existing levels as well as directions as to where other information may be found. (The information about levels is given here because the plan is to a sufficiently large scale and the small amount of earth moving makes it unlikely to form a separate...

Some principles affecting scheduling

Their primary function is to identify and list components possessing common characteristics e.g. windows, doors, manhole covers, etc. They should not attempt to provide comprehensive information about the component they should serve rather as an index to where the relevant information may be found. They should initiate a simple search pattern for the retrieval of component, sub-component and assembly information. They are only worth providing if the component in question has more than one...

Hand lettering

With the pre-eminence of CAD this tends to be a dying skill. But even in the fully automated office there is from time to time the need for a manually prepared and lettered drawing, if only to provide the site office with an urgently needed detail. Such occasions demand a lettering style which is both rapid and legible. Figure 4.21 shows a recommended sequence of strokes in the formation of individual upper case letters. Increasing fluency and self-confidence (each generates the other) will...

Design team meeting

Such a meeting should cover the following points 1 Introductions. Individuals in each organisation must be named as the link men through whom information is to be channelled. They should be of sufficient standing to be able to act and make decisions responsibly and with authority and, if possible, they should be of comparable standing within their own organisations. It is unhelpful to the project for a young project architect to be out-gunned by the senior partner of the engineering...

Coding the set

It is one thing to recognise the existence of this hierarchy and another thing altogether to set it down in simple and universally acceptable terms. The trouble with hierarchic systems in building communications as 1.14 Elemental version of 1.13 dealing with walls (21) with non-slip nosings See Floor Schedule 1.15 Elemental version of 1.13 dealing with floor finishes (43) 1.16 Elemental version of 1.13 dealing with doors and windows (31) 1.19 The simplest possible division of building structure...

Primary structuringby information type

What has been outlined is a method of primary structuring of information according to its type, and which may be summarised and named as follows Location information, answering the questions where are components to be built or installed and where further information about them may be found Component information, answering the question what is the component like Assembly information, answering the question how are the various components to be related one to another how are they to be assembled...

Nonactive lines and symbols

Leader lines, indicating where notes or descriptions apply Other dimensions generally. The method, although recommended in most BSI literature, tends to be replaced in practice by the oblique slashes shown below. Most commonly used method for general dimensioning. Neat, legible and rapid Running dimensions.Use should be restricted to surveys Drawn in thin line to distinguish them from service runs. (See Appendix 1) Dotted line indicates important lines hidden in the particular plan or section...

The plan of work

Since what we shall be looking at is in effect a series of disciplines, and since the plan of work is the overriding discipline into which the working drawing process is integrated, it is probably worthwhile reminding ourselves of it at the outset. Table I of the outline plan of work is given here in its entirety. Frequent reference to the plan of work will be made in this book, for it is important that stage F production drawings should be seen in the context of the whole architectural...

Library of standard details

Many practices attempt, at some point in their existence, to crystallise the accumulated wisdom and experience of the practice into a set of standard details, only to find with increasing disillusionment as they proceed, that not nearly so much is really standard as was at first supposed, and that the very existence of a standard drawing which is nearly (but not quite) applicable to the project in hand is a dangerous inducement to compromise. 5.4 Manufacturer's catalogue gives precise fixing...

Production drawing programme

The production drawings, if properly structured so that a predetermined amount of information is conveyed in them, should be the simplest aspect of the architect's work to quantify in terms of time taken. Having established the list of drawings, it is better for two of the more experienced people to make independent assessments of the time that should be taken over each drawing and to compare notes afterwards. Factors of personal optimism or pessimism may thus be discounted, and a more...

Annotation of the drawing

Adding text to a drawing presents few problems when working with CAD. Modern CAD programs, connected to laser printers or inkjet printers, will have access to all the fonts installed on the operating system. There is a huge choice of styles, any of which might be used for text notes in the drawing. But remember that the aim of text is to convey information clearly and concisely. Don't go overboard with too wild a font style and do use a size that is big enough to read on site. Imagine that a...

Block libraries templates

The CAD equivalent of drawing templates is the block library. Dedicated architectural CAD programs will come complete with their own 2D and 3D block and symbol libraries. These programs will allow you to select 4.8 Examples of plastic cut-out templates available commercially symbols or component drawings from menus and insert them in your drawings where needed. The more sophisticated programs will add the inserted components to automatically generated schedules. Several generic block and symbol...

Drawing sheet size

The international 'A' series of paper sizes is now universally accepted, and all drawing and printed sheets used in the office will conform to its requirements. It originates in the ingenious concept of a rectangle having an area of 1 m2, the length of whose sides are in the proportion 1 V2 (4.4). The dimensions of this rectangle will be found to be 1189 x 841 mm and by progressively halving the larger dimension each time, a reducing series of rectangles is produced, in which the proportions of...

Contents Of An Assembly Drawing

1 The structure of information 2 2 The general arrangement drawing 35 3 Component, sub-component and assembly drawings 61 5 Working drawing management 113 Appendix 1 Building elements and external features 145 Appendix 2 Conventions for doors and windows 148 Appendix 3 Symbols indicating materials 150 Appendix 4 Electrical, telecommunications and fire protection symbols 152 Appendix 5 Non-active lines and symbols 156 Appendix 6 Glossary of CAD terms 158

Specification

The function of the specification in relation to a competent and comprehensive set of drawings may be defined quite simply. It is to set out quality standards for materials and workmanship in respect of building elements whose geometry, location and relationships to one another have been described by means of the drawings. It follows therefore that in a properly structured information package neither specification nor drawings should trespass upon the other's territory. If the drawing calls for...

Drawing overlay method

Each element of the design is drawn on its own unique 'layer' within the computer file, walls on one layer, dimensions on a second, electrics on a third, radiators on a fourth, and so on. Layers can be turned on or off as needed. During the design process both electric and radiator layouts might be turned on, enabling electric sockets behind radiators to be spotted. The concept of layering is common to all CAD programs. Different programs might use different...

General arrangement sections

General Arrangement Plans

General arrangement plans in effect constitute a series of horizontal cross-sections through the building, spaced out so that one is taken at every floor level. This spacing is reasonable, since in practice the appearance of the horizontal section is most likely to differ from floor to floor and unlikely to differ between floor and ceiling. 2.16 Elevation as a secondary reference to window components. The reference S 31 leads back to the external seconday elements schedule, where the components...

Some examples

Appendix 5, dealing with non-active lines, gives examples of the types of dimension line recommended for different purposes. The following comments may be helpful in establishing the correct approach to dimensioning such diverse drawings as the site plan, primary element general arrangement plans, general arrangement and assembly sections, and component and sub-component details. To set out a building it is necessary to establish a datum parallel to one of the building's axes. The criteria by...

Floor plans

Assembly Floor Layout

There are three situations to consider General arrangement location drawing designed to show a single building element and what it should contain. The general arrangement drawing designed to be complete in itself i.e. a drawing which in CI SfB Table 1 terminology would be described as 2.1 The basic plan from which the elemental drawings shown in Chapter 1 were produced 1.14, 1.15 and 1.16 'The project in general' and coded -- . Clearly this type of drawing would only arise on the smallest and...

Guide to these Drawings

The drawings in this project have been arranged in the following manner 1.0 All information in the drawing set is divided into five basic categories of drawing. These are relating for example to windows General arrangement drawing coded G showing where anything is e.g. where a particular window is located in the building. This includes general arrangement plans and elevations, locating all major building elements walls, doors, windows, etc. and indicating where more detailed information may be...

Roof plans

Roof Level Plan Cad

Roofs particularly if they are flat roofs are essentially just another floor and it might be thought pedantic to introduce separate codes for them. Admittedly quantity surveyors and others concerned with elemental cost analysis require the distinction, but drawing codes do not always help here. Is 2.11 a roof plan of the factory, for example, or is it a floor plan of the tank room It should be treated as a floor plan and coded accordingly as 'level number . . .'. This method of referring to all...

Conventions for doors and windows

Drawing Symbols Double Doors

Double leaf, each leaf single opposite action Vertical pivot opening edge should be stated Horizontal pivot bottom edge opens out unless otherwise stated Top hung casement opening out unless otherwise stated Bottom hung hopper opening in unless otherwise stated Convention assumes all windows are viewed from the outside

CISfB

An alternative method is in existence which fulfils most of the requirements of an elemental structuring system and which has the advantage of being already well established within both the profession and the industry. This is the CI SfB method of classification, and while it has its detractors, who legitimately point to certain weaknesses in detail, it has so many advantages in logic and flexibility that on balance it must be recommended. The CPI documents accept it as a viable alternative to...

General arrangement plansprimary elements

Simple Building Drawing

Note that CI SfB Table 1 offers the following choice within the general summary code 2- 22 Internal walls, partitions 28 Building frames, other primary elements. In the larger of the two buildings Project A the decision was made to confine the architect's information about primary elements to a single 2- drawing. A decision was made at about the same time in relation to the smaller and simpler Project B to sub-divide the primary elements to a greater degree. Since the reasons for arriving at...

Title panels

The title panel should be at the bottom right hand corner of the sheet, so that when the drawing is folded properly, the title and number are always clearly visible. A possible exception to this is when A2, A3 and A4 sheets are being used, where the title panel might be reduced in height and spread across the full paper width to provide a more useable drawing area. 4.17 Vertical location of elements in the assembly section is given by references to the planes established in 4.16 Figure 4.19...

Coding assembly drawings

Assembly Drawing Window Opening

A complete system for coding the drawing package is discussed in Chapter 5 but a note here on the coding of the drawings illustrated in 3.17, 3.18 and 3.20 may be helpful. The general arrangement sections 3.17 are coded G for general arrangement 2- for primary elements see notes on general arrangement sections earlier for the reasoning on this and 017, 018 and 019 because that is their sequence in that particular series. The references in the circles are to external wall details or to external...

Component drawings

Timber Clad Infill Panels Between Brick

A component may be defined as any item used in a building which emanates from a single source of supply and which arrives on site as a complete and self-contained unit, whose incorporation into the building requires only its fixing to another component or components. Thus, a window is clearly a component, as is a manhole cover, a door, a section of pre-cast concrete coping, a mirror. So, for that matter, is a brick. A brick wall would be an assembly. Two types of component should be...

Prerequisites for stage F

Cad Trees With Shadows

There is a basic minimum of information which needs to be available before embarking on stage F and this should certainly include the following final set of design drawings stage D record of statutory approvals stages D and E key detailing in draught stage E room data sheets stages C to E outline specification applicable trade literature library of standard details drawing register design team network drawing office programme These items are dealt with in detail below. Final design set stage D...

Room data sheets

Assembly Drawing Example

The advantages of room-by-room scheduling as a medium for conveying information about internal finishes and fittings have been noted earlier. The gradual collection during stage E of such information into a source document of comparable format will clearly assist in the preparation of such schedules at stage F. Whether this is done on a copy of the floor plan or on a series of individual sheets representing each room or room type, is a decision which will be made in the light of the size and...

The assembly drawing

Ambiguous Space Drawing

The juxtaposition of two or more components constitutes an assembly, and depending on the complexity of the arrangement and on how far it may be thought to be self-evident from other information contained elsewhere in the set, it will need to be drawn at an appropriate 3.7 Shelving treated as a component rather than as an assembly. An example of common sense overriding too rigid theories of classification 3.8 Component detail of concrete sill 3.9 Component drawing of different door-sets all...

The drawing register

Sfb Drawing Codes

The drawing register is a key document in the proper organisation of a working drawing project and as such needs to be something rather more than the loose sheet of paper with a scribbled list of drawing numbers and titles which sometimes suffices. After all, it serves a multitude of purposes, being at various times a declaration of intent, a record of performance and, in the event of dispute on abandonment of the project after commencement of the working drawings, possibly a legal document. In...

Electrical symbols

The architect frequently becomes involved in the production of electrical layout drawings, particularly on smaller projects where no M amp E consultant is engaged, and Appendix 4 gives some of the more commonly used symbols in general practice. Two points may usefully be made about the method of showing wiring links between switch and fitting. In the first place, of course, any such representation on the drawing is purely diagrammatic no attempt need be made to indicate the precise route the...

The schedule

The assembly section shown in 3.20 is coded A for assembly 31 for external openings and 001 because it is the first in that series. See also the section on schedules in Chapter 1. There are two distinct types of schedule. There is the straightforward list of items, complete in itself, which adds nothing to information which may be obtained elsewhere in the drawings or the specification. What it does is present this information in a more disciplined and readily retrievable form. A list of...

CAD considerations

Ground Layer Drawings For Plans

The addition of status coding is a useful adjunct to the issue of CAD files also, the status reference being added to the layer naming convention reference A practice might also be maintaining multiple copies of a drawing file on different computers, or in different sub-directories on the same computer some may be back-up copies in case of hard disk failure some may represent different stages in the evolution of the design. For internal purposes a practice will need to know more about a drawing...

Size of drawing office team

Stage Production Information Drawings

The right size and structure of the team is all-important, and in many ways it is a case of the smaller the better. Any increase over a team of one starts to invoke the law of diminishing returns and as the numbers increase so do the problems of control and communications. On the other hand, the diversity of work demanded by most building projects coupled with the constant and remorseless pressures of the overall programme mean that too small a team lacks the necessary flexibility of response....

Homemade systems

It is not difficult to devise your own systems to meet these requirements. Indeed, in practice many offices do, varying the method each time to suit the complexity of the job in hand. Within the primary general arrangement assembly component framework, for instance, it is possible to divide the drawings on a small project into, say, brickwork series B , windows series W , doors series D , etc. The precise method of sub-division and of coding is of less importance than recognising the existence...

Pictorial views

The use of perspective sketches, axonometric and exploded views should not be overlooked as a means of conveying information which might be difficult to document in more conventional forms. The ability of CAD to produce three-dimensional information is of obvious benefit here. Nor should the value of pictorial elevations, perspectives, photo montages and models be discounted as an aid to the contractor. Photographs of existing buildings are invaluable to an estimator when 3.21 Useful format for...

Dimensioning

Drawing Conventions For Timber

That this is a more complex subject than may appear at first sight may be illustrated by a simple example. Consider a timber window set in a prepared opening in an external wall. Unless the wall is to be built up around the window frame, in which case the frame itself will 4.9 The conventions shown are contained in computer software and may be selected as required for the drawing being undertaken. Reproduced by courtesy of Autodesk Ltd serve as a template for the opening, the architect will be...

Drawing conventions

Orthographic Drawing Bsi

In the same way that line thickness is influenced by considerations of scale and the relative importance of the objects delineated, so too is the degree of detail by which various elements are represented. The manner in which a door or a window is shown on a 1 20 assembly drawing is not necessarily appropriate to their representation on a 1 100 general arrangement plan. As always, common sense and absolute clarity of expression are the criteria. If a door frame is detailed 4.6 Overlapping...

Design team programme

It is essential for the work of the entire design team to be integrated into a comprehensive programme, and unless a specialist programmer forms part of the team and this is almost a sine qua non for any very large or complex project then the management role of team coordinator falls to the architect. Of all the consultant team an architect is probably best fitted by virtue of his training and other duties to exercise the skills required, and should take advantage of his position as team leader...