Table 2.3 Continued


Piaget's Stage



Freud's Stage

Therapy Materials

Erikson's Stage

7—11 years

Concrete operations: logical thought, realism; autonomy is prized; guilt develops; rules become important

Drawings gain consistency; drawing triangles; baseline appears; realistic use of color and space relationships

All of the above and oil pastels, craft projects, watercolor, charcoal, India ink, papier mache

Latency stage: (see above)

DM: undoing, compartmentalization, isolation, identification

All of the above and collectible items, stamps, baseball cards, trading cards, plastic models, dolls, beads, boxes, rocks (early is haphazard, later is organized)

Industry versus inferiority: recognition through production, feelings of ego mastery, acceptance of limitations

11—15 years

Formal operations: search of the self, complex thinking, critical thought

Improved perspective; exploration of past, present and future; three-dimensional space is explored

sexual instinct is coupled with mature sexuality; adult responsibilities

All of the above (ages 4 and on) and myth and legends, allegory, historical stories, classic literature, microscopes, telescopes, science activities, hobby crafts

Identity versus role confusion: the promise of Ending oneself and the threat of losing oneself

Early adulthood

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