Joshua Nava Art Therapy

Preface xix

Acknowledgments xxi

Introduction: A Difficult Client Defined 1

In the Beginning 3

Interaction Is the Key 5

Developing the Language of Metaphor 10

Things to Come 15

Part I Defense Mechanisms and the Norms of Behavior 17

1 In My Defense 19

Intellectualization 21 Conversion 25 Condensation 30 Regression 36 Summary 43

2 Adaptation and Integration 45

Jean Piaget 53 Freud 71 Erikson 77

There Was, There Was, and Yet There Was Not 87 Collecting 94 Summary 97

Part II Reading Between the Lines 101

3 Interpreting the Art 103

A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words 106

Draw-a-Person (DAP) Examples 111

Draw-a-Person (DAP) Art Assessments 116

Case Illustrations 119

House-Tree-Person (HTP) 125

House-Tree-Person (HTP) Examples 130

House-Tree-Person (HTP) Art Assessments 143

Case Illustrations 143

Eight-Card Redrawing Test (8CRT) 151

Eight-Card Redrawing Test (8CRT) Art Assessments 152

Case Illustrations 153

Summary 165

4 Directives 171

Directives as Interventions 177 Summary 197

Part III The Practice of Art Therapy 199

5 Individual Therapy: Three Cases Revealed 201

Case Study 5.1 203 Case Study 5.2 216 Case Study 5.3 229

6 Group Therapy Illustrated 242

The Here-and-Now Interaction 245 Empathy 257 Self-Disclosure 265

7 Two's Company, Three's a Crowd?

Family Therapy Directives 274

Paired Communication Drawing 278 Family Mural Drawing 283 Case Study 7.1 285 Case Study 7.2 288

Appendix A: Structural Aspects: Quantitative Analysis 296

Appendix B: Formal Aspects: Qualitative Analysis of the Person 301

Appendix C: Formal Aspects: Qualitative Analysis of the House 309

Appendix D: Formal Aspects: Qualitative Analysis of the Tree 312

Appendix E: Eight-Card Redrawing Test Adapted Scoring Sheet 315

Appendix F: Sample Directives 317

Appendix G: Sample Group Processing Directives 323

References 327

Index 335

About the CD-ROM 345

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