Section The Subjective Element

Every fresh experience is related, whether consciously or not, to some past experience. To say that in a practical way for the art student When you first see a new model, something about that model whether the pose or the figure or the shape of the nose or the color of the hair immediately reminds you of something else that you have seen. This happens whether you will it or not. Naturally this memory of the other person or thing has a tendency to influence, to...

Section Study from Reproductions

Art Nude Poses Draw For Study Lessons

An Approach to tiie Study of Pictures. An intelligent and active study of the great paintings of all times is absolutely necessary. Every great painter has taken advantage of it just as doctors and chemists take advantage of previous work in medicine and chemistry. When you look at the finished work of a painter, you don't see all that has gone on behind the scenes. For the student, it is necessary to go behind the finished work and see the impulse from which it sprang. There is no such thing...

An Approach to the Subject of Technique

Exercise 24 The Modelled Drawing in Ink Continued In Schedule 9 you will devote the long poses to modelled drawing with pen and ink. If you like, you may choose a finer point than before and work rather minutely, spending several hours on one drawing. Or you may combine this exercise with Exercise 22 and make several drawings of parts of the figure. You are asked to put down only your sensation of the weight of the figure and of the forms going back or coming forward. This may be done, of...

Analysis Through Design continued

Gesture Drawing Model Poses

Exercise 54 The Predominating Shape This is another one-minute or five-minute gesture study making use of straight and curved lines. Instead of starting with one line that runs through the entire figure, as in Exercise 46, start with what seems to you to be the predominating two-dimensional shape. This shape may be suggested by the whole figure (for example, a squatting figure may have the general shape of a triangle) or by a part of the figure that is important in the pose (when the model ties...

Section Analysis Through Design

Artwork With Curved Line

When I use the word design with reference to a drawing or painting, I mean simply that it has been organized in relation to movement. As there is movement in every act of nature, there must be the sense of movement in every work of art. It is the artist's task to attempt to understand, first in nature, then in his own field, this principle of movement. Without contrast, and the understanding of contrasts, no sense of movement could be observed. In fact, without contrast...

Section The Muscles

Cylinder Drawing

Muscles are like rubber bands they can pull but they cannot push. Therefore there must be two sets of muscles for every motion one set to pull out and another to pull back. The two sets are placed more or less opposite to each other and while one pulls the other is relaxed. Likewise, in twisting, there is one set of muscles to twist to the right and another set to twist to the left. The muscles are attached to the bones and operate on the bones, pulling them back and...

Section The Simple Proportions Effort

Chinese Paintings Goats

Exercise 26 The Modelled Drawing in Water Color Continued Perhaps you feel that the modelled drawing in water color is the most difficult of the exercises you have taken up thus far and that your grasp of it is the least satisfactory. If you have never used water color before, you may feel that the color runs away from you, that the brush is hard to manage, and that your paper shows only a series of meaningless blobs. In that case, provided your effort is sincere, all you need is more practice....

The Comprehension of Gesture

Art Nude Poses Draw For Study Lessons

The study of gesture is not simply a matter of looking at the movement that the model makes. You must also seek to understand the impulse that exists inside the model and causes the pose which you see. The drawing starts with the impulse, not the position. The thing that makes you draw is the thing that makes the model take the position. To make clear what I mean, I will describe a model posing. He is standing with his right foot on the ground, his left foot resting...

Section Studies of Structure

Anatomy Chart Black And White

Exercise 38 Gesture Studies of Anatomy These are one-minute gesture studies which follow the directions for Exercise 2 with one new element. As you draw, still attempting to draw the whole figure, include some feeling of the movement of the bones within the figure. Record loosely the gesture of the spine, the general basket shape of the ribs, the basin of the pelvis, the ball of the skull, the wedge of the foot. Let the bones and the figure move as one thing. Make a large fifteen-minute contour...

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Metropolitan Museum Figure Drawings

Christ Rising from tiie Tomb by Michelangelo Courtesy of the Metropolitan Muteum 0 Art Courtesy of the Museum of Modem Art Lillie P. Bliss Collection Massacre of the Innocents by Poussin Courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art Courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art Courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art Sketch by an Egyptian Artist 18th century b.c.

Section The Sustained Study

Female Figure Drawings Dancers

In each of the exercises you have taken up we attempted to isolate some important principle in order that you might be able to concentrate on it with all your energy. All of these ideas are a part of drawing it seems to me an essential part and they are eventually to become welded into the one act of drawing. This is the point in your study at which the welding begins. Actually this process of welding has already begun, as you will readily see if you compare your...

Way to Draw

How Draw Earth

not only the best how-to book on drawing, it is the best how-to book we've seen on any subject. Whole Earth Catalog More than 250,000 hardcover copies sold There is only one right way to draw and that is a perfectly natural way. It has nothing to do with artifice or technique. It has nothing to do with aesthetics or conception. It has only to do with the act of correct observation, and by that I mean a physical contact with all sorts of objects through all the senses. _ NicolaYdes KIMON...

The Modelled Drawing in Water Color Right Angle Study

Color Water

Today you will begin the practice of the modelled drawing in a third medium water color. Each medium that you use should enrich the others. Practice with pen and ink, for example, contributes something to the use of water color which practice with water color alone cannot give, making it fuller and more varied as a medium of expression. As far apart as etching and oil painting are, the one contributes to the other as in the work of Rembrandt. This change of medium might be...

Exercises in Black and White Oil Color

Art Nude Poses Draw For Study Lessons

Exercise 51 Sustained Study in Oil Color Materials In addition to cream manila and tracing paper, you will need a sheet of dark brown manila wrapping paper about fifteen by twenty two tubes of oil color zinc white or titanium white and any good black two long-haired flat bristle brushes, about a quarter of an inch and three-quarters of an inch wide a cheap palette a palette knife rectified turpentine, which you will put into an oil cup or small jar a supply of clean rags about five inches...

Weight and the Modelled Drawing

Cross Contour Art

With the word 'form' bandied back and forth as it is, one would believe that real progress is being made in the effort to understand the nature of form, to realize its significance. However, I have found that most students mistake a certain type of shallow, superficial surface modelling for form. To me weight is the essence of form. And, since the life of a thing is its only real significance, I think of form as the living expression of weight. To make clear what I mean by lack...

Section The Study of Drapery

Vision San Giovacchino Giotto

The advisability of studying drapery is obvious. The student will spend much more time drawing the costumed figure when he is out of school than he will drawing the nude, yet I have found that most students leave school with little or no conception of how to draw clothes. Aside from this obvious practical reason, the precise study of a piece of drapery makes all other forms more clear. There is only one important principle to remember. Wherever the drapery is held, either against the...

Section Special Form Studies

When a boat comes out of the fog, you see first the large simple forms. As it comes closer, you see more. Each detail grows in place and with the same relationship to all the other details that it had at first. The details do not suddenly leap out at you but appear by gradual transition. Nothing is applied. Everything grows out of the thing itself. The thing grows and the details are the crescendo of the form. You put the cart before the horse if you put them first. When you use a...

Exercises in Black and White Crayon

Fragonard Human Figure Drawings

Exercise 35 The Sustained Study in Crayon Materials In addition to cream manila and tracing paper, you will need an HB drawing pencil for tracing the contour and a sheet of rough-toothed, medium gray paper, such as construction paper, or cheap pastel or charcoal paper. The sheet may be fifteen by twenty inches in size or larger, as eighteen by twenty-four. For the modelling, use any two of the following one black and one white or all of them a black Cont crayon, medium a white Cont crayon,...

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Portrait Anatomy Drawing

Portrait of Frau Burgermeister Dorothea Meyer by Hans Holbein, the Younger Couriety of the Museum of Modern Art Nude Figure Kneeling on one Knee by Rodin Courtesy oj the Museum of Modem Art Lillie P. Bliss Collection The Artist's Mother by Seurat See first the large simple forms.

Emphasis on Contour The Head

Art Nude Poses Draw For Study Lessons

You have been rushed through a number of exercises in what may seem a very short time. I realize that it has been impossible for you to go deeply enough into any one exercise, but it is necessary in the beginning to avoid the great danger of monotony. At this point we are going to take up in turn each of the four long exercises you have already begun, attempting to carry each one a step further along. In Schedule 7 we return to contour and you are asked once again...

The Figure with Drapery The Subjective Impulse

Gesture Drawing Delacroix

Exercise 29 The Figure with Drapery For all the exercises in Schedule 12 the model is asked to pose with the piece of drapery which you have been studying. Naturally, when the model rests and then continues a pose, the folds will change somewhat. This will not disturb you if you understand clearly the principle of the hub. As long as the pose is the same, the hubs are the same. When you recognize the folds as radiating from those hubs, the difference in details may be easily adjusted on your...

Memory Drawing and Other Quick Studies

Body Drawing Action

With the exception of the contour study, there is no drawing that is not a memory drawing because, no matter how slight the interval is from the time you look at the model until you look at your drawing or painting, you are memorizing what you have just seen. Of course, in that kind of drawing in which the student looks back and forth from the model continuously, he is memorizing little bits at a time, hoping to be able, after he has assembled all the little bits, to put them...

Composition

Winthrop Collection Fogg Art Museum

The Limitations of Preconceived Ideas. In learning to draw, it is necessary to start back of the limitations that casual information sets upon you. Preconceived ideas about things with which you have no real experience have a tendency to defeat the acquiring of real knowledge. One handicap that people have in looking at a painting is that they relate it, not to an actuality, but to other pictures of which they have accidental knowledge. Watch a child draw a house. He has in mind no picture that...

Modelled Drawing

Contour and Gesture 5 Section 2. The Comprehension of Gesture 28 exercise 4 potential gesture 24 Section 3. Weight and the Modelled Drawing 32 exercise 7 the modelled drawing 36 Section 4. Memory Drawing and. Other Quick Studies 40 exercise 10 descriptive poses 45 Section 5. The Modelled Drawing in Ink The Daily Composition 48 exercise 13 the modelled drawing in ink 51 exercise 14 the daily composition 52 Section 6. The Modelled Drawing in Water Color Right-Angle Study 67 exercise 15...

Section The Long Composition

An Approach to the Study of Composition. If you wish to compose, no matter what you know of composition, you quickly find that you need material to compose with. Therefore, it seems logical that the first exercise in composition must be one in which you attempt to acquire the necessary data in relation to human activity and its environment. The simplest and most efficient practice is to do one composition every day, drawing from that day's experience. That is an exercise you have already begun...

An Approach to the Study of Anatomy

Man Anatomy Contour Draw

The human figure is built for action, and the best approach to the study of anatomy is that which constantly relates the anatomy of the figure to the possibility of movement. The shapes of the body in action are entirely different from those of the dormant body. It is the gesture that gives everything its shape. The bones and muscles have been modelled into their form by action, through centuries of existence, and those forms are not static. If anatomy were illogical it...

How to Use This Book

It is not meant simply to be read any more than you would sit down to read through an arithmetic book without I assume that you are about to embark on a year of art study, and I plan to teach you as nearly as possible just what you would have learned if you had spent a year in one of my classes at the Art Students' League. I do not care who you are, what you can do, or where you have studied if you have studied at all. I am concerned only with showing you some...

The Natural Way to Draw

A Working Plan for Art Study by Kimon Nicola des Copyright 1941 by Anne Nicolaides Copyright renewed 1969 by Anne Nicolaides For information about permission to reproduce selections from this book, write to Permissions, Houghton Mifflin Company, 2 Park Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02108. ISBN 0-395-08048-7 ISBN 0-395-53007-5 pbk. Printed in the United States of America 'The supreme misfortune is when theory outstrips performance.'

Section Contour and Gesture

One Minute Gesture Torso Poses

The first function of an art student is to observe, to study nature. The artist's job in the beginning is not unlike the job of a writer. He must first reach out for raw material. He must spend much time making contact with actual objects. Learning to draw is really a matter of learning to see to see correctly and that means a good deal more than merely looking with the eye. The sort of 'seeing' I mean is an observation that utilizes as many of the five senses as can reach...

Section Light and Shade

There is no such thing as shadow. This, of course, is not literally true, but, while it is sometimes advisable to think of a shadow as a positive thing with a positive power, for you at this time it is much better to think of shadow as it actually is merely the absence of light. Even the expression, a 'cast shadow,' means that one thing is blocking the light from another and the place where the light does not get through is called a shadow. In drawing the part on...