Dog And Feline

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• Origin: Ulnar origin is from the rear edge of the ulna.

• Insertion: Bottom of the last toe bone of all five digits.

• Structure: A small portion of the belly comes to the surface on the inside of the forearm, between the radius and the flexor digitorum superficialis (palmaris longus in the feline). The tendon of the flexor carpi radialis lies on top of it in this interval. In the feline, the ulnar portion of the muscle can be seen on the outer back corner of the forearm between the extensor carpi ulnaris and the flexor carpi ulnaris, running from the elbow down to the wrist. The remainder of the muscle and its five tendons are not visible on the surface.

Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Ulnar Head

INSIDE VIEW FRONT ►

FLEXOR CARPI ULNAR IS

Humeral head---

Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Dogs

REAR VIEW < OUTSIDE

Feline Carpal Bones

INSIDE VIEW FRONT ►

FLEXOR CARPI ULNAR IS

Humeral head---

INSIDE VIEW FRONT ►

HORSE

ALL LEFT FRONT LI MS

REAR VIEW < OUTSIDE

INSIDE VIEW FRONT ►

Flexor carpi ulnaris (Flexor metacarpi medius) HORSE

• Origin: Lower end of the inside surface of the humerus; inner surface, toward the rear, of the upper end of the ulna.

• Insertion: Upper edge of the accessory carpal bone of the wrist.

• Action: Flexes the wrist joint; extends the elbow joint.

• Structure: Begins on the inside of the elbow region and ends on the back of the wrist. The muscle consists of two heads—a larger, flattened, curved humeral head and a thinner ulnar head. They join above the midpoint of the forearm, and the fused heads insert into the top of the accessory carpal bone via a strong, short tendon. The upper ends of both heads are covered by the pectoralis.

• Structure: More flattened and wider than in the horse. DOG AND FELINE

• Structure: The humeral and ulnar heads descend in contact with each other, yet remain distinct throughout. The humeral head is massive, and the ulnar head is very thin and lies on top of it. In the dog, the upper portion of the humeral head lies completely deep to both the ulnar head and the flexor digitorum superficialis; only its lower outer edge comes to the surface. The upper end of the ulnar head is slightly covered by the medial head of the triceps. In the feline, only a narrow strip of the humeral head comes to the surface between the ulnar head and the palmaris longus.

SESAMOID BONE

TENDON OF EXTENSOR DIG! TOR UM COMMUNIS

Horse Suspensory Ligament Inside Leg

HORSE

SUSPENSORY LIGAMENT

BRANCH TO

EXTENSOR

TENDON

HORSE

BRANCH TO

EXTENSOR

TENDON

OUTSIDE VIEW REAR VIEW OUTSIDEVIEW REAR VIEW

TENDON OF EXTENSOR DIG! TOR UM COMMUNIS

SUSPENSORY LIGAMENT

SESAMOID BONE

Suspensory ligament (Interosseous medius)

HORSE

• Origin: Upper end of the rear surface of the large metacarpal bone and the back of the lower row of carpal bones.

• Insertion: Upper outer surface of each sesamoid bone on the back of the metacarpophalangeal joint; ultimately into the front top edge of the last (distal) toe bone by its connection to the tendon of the extensor digitorum communis.

• Action: Supports the metacarpophalangeal (fetlock) joint, holding the joint passively in position while the animal is standing. However, because it is elastic, it allows the fetlock joint to be extended to almost ninety degrees while the animal is running, and then springs the limb back to the normal position as the weight of the body is removed.

• Structure: The suspensory ligament is a wide, thick, flat band lying on the back of the large metacarpal, deep to the flexor tendons of the toe. It contains only a few muscle fibers, recalling its relationship to the interossei muscle of other species. Three fourths of the way down the metacarpal, it splits. These parts then split into two branches. The short, inner branches insert into the sesamoids; the long outer branches continue downward and forward around both sides of the upper toe bone, reaching and then fusing with the tendon of the extensor digitorum communis. The edges of the suspensory ligament can be seen prominently behind the large metacarpal bone, in front of the flexor tendons. The long branches wrapping around the sides of the toe bone may also be seen on the surface.

• Insertion: Main portion: Top surface of both sesamoid bones of each toe; ultimately into the front top edge of the last toe bone of both toes by its connection to the tendons of the extensor digitorum lateralis on the outer toe and the extensor digitorum communis on the inner toe. Rear portion: Into the tendon of the flexor digitorum superficialis.

• Structure: Because the suspensory ligament in the ox involves two toes, is becomes quite complex in its numerous branchings, with more than ten areas of insertion. This description is restricted to its superficial structures. As in the horse, it begins as a wide band on the back of the carpus, then, two thirds of the way down, splits for each toe. It then splits again to send a short branch to each of the sesamoid bones of each toe and a long branch around the outsides of the toes to fuse with the extensor tendons—the extensor digitorum lateralis on the outside of the foot and the extensor digitorum communis on the inside.

At about the middle of the metacarpal bone, a separate wide tendinous band comes off the back surface of the suspensory ligament and goes on to split into two branches. It then descends to the back of the metacarpophalangeal joint and attaches to the tendon of the flexor digitorum superficialis, wrapping around the tendon of the deeper flexor digitorum profundus. It softens the details of this region. The suspensory ligament of the ox contains more muscle fiber than that of the horse.

TENDON OF EXTENSOR DIGITORUM LATERALIS

Dog Metacarpal Sesamoid Bone

SESAMOID

BRANCH TO

EXIENSOR

TENDON

BONE

SUSPENSORY LIGAMENT Main ponton

Rear portion

BONE

All LEFT FRONT LIMB

BRANCH TO

EXIENSOR

TENDON

TENDON OF EXTENSOR DIGITORUM LATERALIS

SESAMOID

Sesamoid Bones Dog

INTEROSSEI

LEFT FRONT UMB

OUTSIDE VIEW -4 FRONT

ABDUCTOR DIGITI V

INTEROSSEI

LEFT FRONT UMB

ABDUCTOR DIGITI V

Dog Interossei

OUTSIDE VIEW -4 FRONT

Interossei DOG AND FELINE

• Origin: Upper end of the rear surface of each of the four major metacarpal bones (digits 2 through 5) of the front paw.

• Insertion: By tendon into both sesamoid bones at the lower end of each of the four major metacarpal bones, and further down onto the adjacent upper end of the upper toe bone. A branch of each tendon continues around each side of each toe bone to the front of the paw, where it inserts into the tendon of the extensor digitorum communis (similar to the suspensory ligament of the horse and the ox).

• Action: Flexes the metacarpophalangeal joints.

• Structure: The interossei consist of four elongated muscle bellies lying on the rear surface of the four major metacarpals. Their lower ends split and then develop short tendons. The outermost interosseous adds a slight muscular fullness on the outer edge of the rear of the paw.

Abductor digit! V DOG AND FELINE

• Origin: Bottom of the accessory carpal bone.

• Insertion: Outer sesamoid bone of the outer metacarpal and the adjacent upper end of the upper toe bone.

• Action: Pulls the outer toe away from the paw.

• Structure: The abductor digiti V lies on the outermost interosseous muscle, and with it adds fullness to the outer back edge of the paw.

It has a short muscle belly and a long tendon. The belly lies higher up on the paw than the outer interosseous.

Muscle Belly Outside

sacrotuberal ligament

OUTSIDE VIEW fHONT

HORSE

GLUTEUS MEDIUS

LONGISSIMUS

OUTSIDE VIEW fHONT

HORSE

sacrotuberal ligament

GLUTEUS MEDIUS

LONGISSIMUS

Gluteus Medius Weakness Running

OUTSIDE VIEW

Gluteus medius

HORSE

• Origin: Surface of the depression in the top of the longissimus muscle; upper surface of the ilium of the pelvis; from wide ligaments connecting the sacrum to the ilium and the sacrum to the ischiatic tuberosity (sacrotuberal ligament).

• Insertion: Top and back of the upper end of the femur.

• Action: Extends the hip joint (important muscle for rearing, jumping, kicking, and forward propulsion); pulls the limb away from the body.

• Structure: Beginning thin in front, on top of the longissimus, the gluteus medius becomes a thick, massive muscle that gives the buttocks its rounded form. Its rear edge is covered by the gluteus superficialis and the biceps femoris.

• Structure: Similar to, but much less developed than in the horse. The front end is narrower and does not extend as far forward as it does in the horse. Although it has a convex form, the gluteus medius often lies recessed in relation to the surrounding bony prominences. Its rear edge is covered by the gluteobiceps.

DOG AND FELINE

• Origin: Dog: Outer surface of the front end of the ilium of the pelvis, and from the ligament connecting the sacrum to the ilium. Feline: Upper half of the outer surface of the ilium, and from the transverse processes (side projections) of the last sacral vertebra and the first tail vertebra.

• Insertion: Upper end of the femur.

• Structure: The thick, fleshy belly ends in a short wide tendon before inserting on the femur. Its rear edge is covered by the gluteus superficialis.

SACRUM

Anatomy Thigh Felin

THIRD TROCHANTER

OUTSIDE VIEW 4 FRONT

HORSE

GLUTEUS SUPERFICIALIS

SACRUM

OUTSIDE VIEW 4 FRONT

HORSE

GLUTEUS SUPERFICIALIS

THIRD TROCHANTER

ALL LEFT REAR LIMB

Gluteus superficialis

HORSE

• Origin: Point of the hip (coxal tuberosity) and an adjacent area on the outer edge of the ilium of the pelvis; from fascia covering the gluteus medius (in part ultimately originating from the ligament connecting the sacrum to the ilium).

• Insertion: Third trochanter of the femur, one third of the way down the outside of the bone.

• Action: Flexes the hip joint; pulls the limb away from the body.

• Structure: The gluteus superficialis is a thin, V-shaped muscle that converges on the femur. The front portion is partly covered by, and firmly attached to, the tensor fasciae latae muscle. The rear portion sits on top of the gluteus medius; its rear edge is covered by the biceps femoris.

DOG AND FELINE

• Origin: The sacrum, the first tail vertebra, the front half of the ligament connecting the sacrum to the ischiatic tuberosity (sacrotuberal ligament), and the fascia covering the gluteus medius.

• Insertion: Outer surface of the femur, about one-eighth of the way down the bone.

• Structure: The gluteus superficialis is a small, flat muscle appearing somewhat rectangular on the surface. It is smaller than the gluteus medius.

The gluteus superficialis is not present in the ox. The upper front portion of the gluteobiceps muscle of the ox is believed to be the rear portion of the gluteus superficialis, and the rear portion of the tensor fasciae latae may be the front portion of the gluteus medius.

SACROTUBERAL LIGAMENT

SACRUM

FIRST TAIL VERTEBRA

Dog Sacrum

OUTSIDE VIEW * FRONT

GLUTEUS SUPERFICIALIS

OUTSIDE VIEW * FRONT

SACROTUBERAL LIGAMENT

GLUTEUS SUPERFICIALIS

SACRUM

FIRST TAIL VERTEBRA

Origin And Insertion Tail Muscles

Caudofemoralis (Gluteofemoralis) FELINE

• Origin: Side projections of the first, second, and third tail vertebrae.

• Insertion: The fascia of the leg in front of the biceps femoris muscle, and the middle of the outside edge of the patella.

• Action: Extends the hip joint; pulls the limb away from the body.

• Structure: The caudofemoralis muscle, exclusive to the felines, is an elongated triangular muscle located behind the gluteus superficialis. Approximately one third of the way down the thigh, it disappears under the biceps femoris. About two thirds of the way down, it develops a long, very thin tendon. The visible superficial portion of the muscle belly is approximately the same size as the gluteus superficialis.

TENSOR

Dog Anatomy Trochanter Major
OUTSIDE VIEW ■* FRONT

TENSOR

HORSE

Tensor fasciae latae HORSE

• Origin: Point of the hip (outer front corner of the ilium of the pelvis).

• Insertion: Into the fascia of the leg that surrounds the vastus lateralis and the rectus femoris, therefore indirectly into the patella, the outer patellar ligament, and the front edge of the tibia.

• Action: Flexes the hip joint and, by its ultimate attachment to the patella and the tibia, extends the knee joint.

• Structure: The tensor fasciae latae is a triangular muscle that forms the front edge of the upper end of the thigh. Its belly begins on the point of the hip and ends midway between the point of the hip and the patella. Its rear edge tightly adheres to the gluteus superficialis. The muscle belly may separate into two forms upon contraction.

A thickened, narrow band of fascia coming off the belly passes over the thigh muscles and attaches to the patellar ligament. When the tensor fasciae latae is tensed, the fascial band tightens and compresses the underlying vastus lateralis muscle. This can create a narrow form, directed from the point of the hip to the patella.

• Structure: The lower end of the belly ends in a wide inverted "V." The front edge of the belly ends a short distance above the patella.

DOG AND FELINE

• Origin: Lower edge of the front end of the pelvis; the surface of the gluteus medius.

• Insertion: Into the fascia covering the thigh muscles.

• Structure: The triangular muscle separates into two forms on the surface. The muscle belly ends high on the thigh; its lower edge is directed downward and forward from the upper end of the femur. The sartorius, not the tensor fasciae latae, is the leading muscle on the front of the thigh.

Canine Gracilis
DOG

Sartorius

HORSE AND OX

The sartorius is a minor muscle and is rarely visible on the surface. It is a small, narrow muscle that lies on the inside of the thigh, just in front of the gracilis. Originating deep on the fascia and tendon in the region where the upper inner end of the thigh meets the rear of the abdomen, it becomes tendinous above the knee. Its tendon ultimately inserts into the medial patellar ligament and the tibia.

DOG AND FELINE

• Origin: Front portion: Line on the front edge of the pelvis. Rear portion: Line on the lower edge of the front end of the pelvis.

• Insertion: Dog: Front portion: With the vastus medialis and the rectus femoris into the patella and the fascia of the knee. Rear portion: Front edge of the tibia. Feline: Continuous insertion from the patella to the upper end of the tibia.

• Action: Flexes the hip joint; pulls the limb toward the centerline of the body.

• Structure: The sartorius begins on the front end of pelvis and ends on the inside of the knee. It passes down the front and inside of the thigh, veering to the inside of the knee and becoming a wide tendon before inserting. In the side view of the body, the front edge of the sartorius can be seen passing down most of the front of the thigh and disappearing as it shifts to the inside. The lower half of the muscle passes over the lower end of the rectus femoris and the vastus medialis, adding muscular thickness on the lower end of the inside of the thigh. The muscle can also be seen in the front and inside views of the leg.

The sartorius consists of two elongated parallel muscular bands— a front and a rear portion—in the dog, but a single, wider muscle in the feline.

Horse Vastus Lateralis

VASTUS LATERALIS

RECTUS FEMORIS

ALL LEFT REAR LIMB

RECTUS FEM OR IS

Vastus Lateralis Horse

LATERALIS

PATELLAR LIGAMENT

OUTSIDE VIEW ■4 FRONT

RECTUS FEMORIS

VASTUS MEDIAL!S

MEDIAL PATELLAR LIGAMENT

HORSE

Quadriceps Femoris Horse

LATERAL PATELLAR LIGAMENT MIDDLE PATELLAR LIGAMENT

ALL LEFT REAR LIMB

RECTUS FEM OR IS

RECTUS FEMORIS

RECTUS FEMORIS

VASTUS MEDIAL!S

LATERAL PATELLAR LIGAMENT MIDDLE PATELLAR LIGAMENT

VASTUS LATERALIS

LATERALIS

MEDIAL PATELLAR LIGAMENT

PATELLAR LIGAMENT

HORSE

OUTSIDE VIEW FRONT VII

FRONT OUTSIDE

Quadriceps femoris: Vastus lateralis, medialis, and intermedius, Rectus femoris

HORSE

• Origin: Vastus lateralis: Outer surface of the femur, from a level just below the hip socket to two thirds of the way down the bone. Vastus medialis: Inner surface of the femur, from a level just below the hip socket to two thirds of the way down the bone. Rectus femoris: Two small adjacent areas on the body of the pelvis just in front of the hip socket.

• Insertion: All parts: The entire front surface and upper edge of the patella, and because of the attachment of the three patellar ligaments to the tibia, ultimately into the front of the upper end of the tibia (the tibial tuberosity). The vastus lateralis and medialis also insert into the sides of the rectus femoris, attaching to the fascia covering its surface. In addition, the vastus medialis inserts into the upper half of the medial patellar ligament.

• Action: All parts extend the knee joint; the rectus femoris also flexes the hip joint.

• Structure: The quadriceps muscle consists of the vastus lateralis, the vastus medialis, the deep vastus intermedius, and the rectus femoris. The three vastus muscles all begin on the femur, and the rectus femoris originates on the pelvis. These four components form a large, wide (front-to-back) but flattened (side-to-side) muscle mass. It embraces the inside, outside, and front of the femur, but it lies for the most part in front of it. The vastus lateralis lies on the outside of the thigh and is somewhat oval in outline. Its rear edge is straighter than the front edge, and its rear portion is covered by the biceps femoris. The vastus medialis is similar in shape, and lies on the inside of the thigh. There is a wide

OUTSIDE VIEW ■4 FRONT

groove running down the front of the mass of the three vastus muscles in which the rectus femoris sits. The rectus femoris is an elongated muscle, tapered at both ends.

The patellar ligaments, although termed "ligaments" because they connect bone to bone (the patella to the tibia), are actually a continuation of the quadriceps muscle and are its tendons of insertion. In the horse and the ox, three patellar ligaments—inner, middle, and outer—converge on the tibial tuberosity.

• Insertion: Vastus lateralis: Also into the lateral patellar ligament. DOG AND FELINE

• Origin: Small areas on the inside (vastus medialis) and outside (vastus lateralis) of the femur near its upper end. The rectus femoris originates from a single area on the pelvis.

• Insertion: All parts into the patella, therefore ultimately into the tibia. The vastus muscles insert into their respective sides of the rectus femoris.

• Structure: The quadriceps femoris in the dog and feline does not bulge forward as much as in the horse, but the vastus lateralis bulges out to the side quite a bit, especially at its upper end. Although it is partially covered by the biceps femoris, the tensor fasciae latae, and the sartorius, the quadriceps femoris produces the bulk of the form on the front of the thigh.

There is a single patellar ligament between the patella and the tibia.

Anatomy Felin Thigh

OUTSIDE VIEW REAR VIEW

FRONT -4 OUTSIDE

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