Application of concepts

Horse Costal Arch

Conceptualization of body volumes is highly subjective. There are no hard-and-fast rules, but rather each artist, through a knowledge of anatomy and direct observation from life, creates a set of volume conceptions. By conceiving accurately shaped, directed, and articulated body volumes, which then have the details of anatomy engraved upon them, the artist can create dynamically rendered and convincing animal art. The following drawings show the axes and major volumes of various animals. The...

Method

All silhouettes for the proportions were drawn from photographs of living animals ideally in the wild, rather than zoo animals , to capture the essence of the shape of an adult animal in profile. These are compared with other evolutionarily related animals to appreciate their similarities and differences. The goal was to present a typical image representative of the species, keeping in mind that for a single type of animal wolf, rabbit, squirrel there may be more than one species, subspecies,...

Arm and forearm

Radius Dog Front View

The humerus, or upper arm bone, is fairly consistent across the various species. It varies mostly in its length and thickness relative to the other limb bones. It is short in the horse and ox, longer in the carnivores, and long and slender in primates. The upper end, the head, articulates with the scapula at the shoulder joint. The point on the outside front corner of the upper end of the humerus, although covered by thin muscle, may be seen on the surface. Called the point of the shoulder, it...

Basic body plan

There is a basic body plan common to most of the animals presented in this book. At its most obvious, they all have a head, a body, and four limbs. Most are four-legged and stand on all fours, and are described as having front limbs and rear limbs. The front limb is anatomically equivalent to the arm and hand in humans and primates, and the rear limb to the human lower limb. The animals in this book are surprisingly similar in many ways. The head is connected to the rib cage by the neck...

General

The skeleton is the internal framework of the body and is made up of bones and cartilage. Bones provide support when they are locked in position by the muscles and ligaments and protection the skull, rib cage, and pelvis protect their contents . Bones also produce motion, acting as levers when pulled by the muscles. Cartilage is a hard, yet elastic resilient tissue, and can be found in the ears, the nose, and at the ends of the ribs, where they directly create surface form. Bones move against...

Henry Galiano And Debra Wan Liew

Rhino Anatomy Chart

The strength of this book lies in the fact that so many people have been so generous with their time, knowledge, resources, and collections. I thank Stuart Pivar, founder of the New York Academy of Art, who provided an environment for me to teach animal and human anatomy to artists. He strongly supported the acquisition of an anatomical collection of comparative skeletons, related artwork, anatomical models and charts, and the use of dissection as part of the curriculum, which allowed me to...

Temporalis Muscle On Dogs

The skull is the skeleton of the head, and determines the overall shape of the head in life. It consists of the cranium or braincase in the back, the face in front, and the lower jaw. Major structures overlying the skull and influencing its form are the nostrils, the lips, and the chewing muscles two on each side four total . The cranium, which houses the brain, is a rounded form. It can be covered to a greater or lesser degree by the encroachment of the chewing muscles of the temple the...

Lower leg

Dog Leg Anatomy

The tibia and the fibula make up the bones of the lower leg. The tibia is a large bone that supports the weight of the body. Its lower end forms the entire ankle bone in the horse and ox, but only the inner ankle bone in dogs, cats, pigs, and primates, where the fibula reaches the ankle on the outside. The inner surface of the entire tibia is subcutaneous. The bony prominence at its upper end, to which the patellar ligament is attached, is called the tibial tuberosity. The front edge of the...

Mylohyoid

Manubrium Dog Anatomy

Origin Inside surface of the lower jaw, just below the tooth sockets. Insertion Into the same muscle of the other side, along the midline, and then into the hyoid bone. Action Raises the floor of the mouth and the tongue pulls the hyoid bone forward. Structure The mylohyoid forms the downward bulging floor of the mouth. Both sides together form a sling under the lower jaw. This sling drops down below the level of the lower jaw and therefore forms part of the profile of the throat when not...

Forefoot

Sheep Front Leg Anatomy

The hand forefoot, forepaw, manus is made up of the carpals wrist bones , the metacarpals, and the digits fingers toes . The carpus contains two horizontal rows of small, somewhat cube-like bones, ranging from six in the artiodactyls, seven or eight in the horse, to eight in the cat, dog, and human. Most evident in the horse, the flexed wrist separates into three forms in front. From the top downward, they are the lower end of the radius, the top row of the carpals, and the bottom row of the...

Rib cage

The rib cage, which forms the chest wall, is an important volume. Shaped somewhat like a cone, it is created by the individual ribs connecting to the spine above and to the sternum below. Its gets smaller toward the front and, in four legged animals, is flattened side-to-side. The back end is wide and open. The rib cage is wider at the top near the spine and narrower below at the sternum . The individual ribs lie approximately parallel to each other and are directed downward and slightly...

Orbicularis oris

Insertion Into the lips as it surrounds the mouth. Dog Also into the nasal cartilage on the side of the nose. Action Closes the mouth by pressing and tightening the lips. Dog Fibers to the nasal cartilage pull the nose downward and enlarge the nostril opening. Structure The orbicularis oris surrounds the mouth, lying in the upper and lower lips. It is continuous with the muscle of the other side in both the upper and lower lips in the horse absent in the front of...

Depressor labii maxillaris superioris

Masseter Animal

Origin Side of the upper jaw, at the end of the facial crest, above the molars. Insertion Front end of the upper lip and the lower portion of the nostril. Action Pulls the front end of the upper lip and the lower end of the nostril rearward. Structure The muscle splits into two bundles before inserting. It is not present in the horse, dog, or feline. Depressor labii mandibulars inferioris Quadratus labii inferioris Origin Rear end of the edge of the tooth sockets of the molars of the lower...

Levator Nasolabialis Horse

Gluteobiceps

The muscles of the head consist of the chewing muscles temporalis, masseter, and digastric and the facial muscles zygomaticus, orbicularis oris, etc. . The chewing muscles are thick and volumetric, and they originate and insert on bone. They open and close the lower jaw, with the action taking place at the jaw joint temporomandibular joint . The facial muscles are thin. They originate either from the skull or from the surface of other muscles, and they generally insert into other facial muscles...

Muscle groups

Introduction Animal Anatomy

Muscles can be grouped into functional assemblages, which are often also visually distinct. Throughout the regions of the body there are flexor groups, which bend the joints, and extensor groups, which straighten them. Such muscle masses usually lie on opposite sides of a bone. For example, the thigh muscles on the front of the femur together form the extensor group of the knee joint, whereas the hamstring muscles behind the femur form the flexor group of the same joint the hamstring group also...

Vertebral column

Subcutaneously The Base The Tail

The spine, or vertebral column, is made up of numerous individual vertebrae, and extends from the back of the skull to the tip of the tail. It is most flexible at the neck, made up of the cervical vertebrae, and somewhat less flexible in the region located between the rib cage and the pelvis, made up of the lumbar vertebrae. The thoracic vertebrae, located between the cervical and lumbar vertebrae, have the ribs attached to them. There is some movement possible in this region of the spine, but...

Anterior Neck Muscles

The sternohyoid, sternothyroid together combined as the sternothyro-hyoid in the horse and the ox and omohyoid are long, narrow, straplike muscles that lie on the front of the neck and converge at the upper end of the front of the throat. These thin bands of muscle lie on the trachea windpipe and pass over the thyroid cartilage Adam's apple The hyoid bone is composed of a number of thin bones that are suspended from the rear end of the base of the skull. The sternohyoid, omohyoid, and mylohyoid...

Buccinator

Orbicularis Oris Dog

Origin Horse Lower edge of the upper jaw between the canine tooth and the molars, continuing along the tooth sockets of the molars upper edge of the lower jaw between the canine tooth and the molars and an area to the rear of the last molar. Ox Edges of the tooth sockets of the upper and lower jaws. Dog Cheek portion edges of the tooth sockets of the molars of the upper and lower jaws lip portion corner of the mouth. Insertion Comer of the mouth, merging with fibers of the orbicularis oris....

Hind foot

Canine Anatomy Phalanges Metaphalangeal

The foot pes, hind foot, hind paw skeleton is made up of the tarsals, the metatarsals, and the digits, or toes. The tarsus contains from five to seven bones. The most prominent tarsal bone is the calcaneus, or heel bone, which projects backward and upward, beyond the ankle joint, to receive the Achilles tendon of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. Primates and bears stand and walk with their heels on the ground this is called plantigrade locomotion. Most four-legged animals stand and walk...

Flexor digitorum profundus Flexor perforans HORSE

Origin Lower end of the inner surface of the humerus inner surface of the olecranon of the ulna rear surface of the radius. Insertion Rear edge of the last toe bone. Action Flexes the wrist joint and all the toe joints extends the elbow joint. Structure Located behind the radius, the flexor digitorum profundus is the largest of the flexor muscles and consists of three major heads that contribute substantially to the mass of the forearm. Its belly lies mostly deep to the other forearm muscles....

Gluteobiceps

Fibularis Tertius Cat Anatomy

Origin Spines of the sacrum, the sacrotuberal ligament, the ischiatic tuberosity at the rear end of the pelvis, and the fascia covering the gluteus medius and the tail. Insertion Into the fascia of the leg, ultimately into the patella, the lateral patellar ligament, the front edge of the tibia, and the heel bone. Action Extends the hip joint extends the ankle joint pulls the limb away from the body. With different portions, it both flexes and extends the knee joint. Structure The gluteobiceps...

Caninus Dilator naris lateralis

Origin Side of the face in front of the facial crest in the horse at the end of the facial crest in the ox just above the large molar in the dog and feline. Insertion Side of the wing of the nostril in the horse and ox upper lip in the dog and feline. Action In the horse and ox, the caninus pulls the side wall of the nostril rearward, dilating the nostril in the dog and feline, it lifts and retracts the front of the upper lip, exposing the canine tooth. Structure In the horse, the caninus is a...

Dog And Feline

Dog Sacrum

Origin Ulnar origin is from the rear edge of the ulna. Insertion Bottom of the last toe bone of all five digits. Structure A small portion of the belly comes to the surface on the inside of the forearm, between the radius and the flexor digitorum superficialis palmaris longus in the feline . The tendon of the flexor carpi radialis lies on top of it in this interval. In the feline, the ulnar portion of the muscle can be seen on the outer back corner of the forearm between the extensor carpi...

Pectoralis profundus Pectoralis minor Dog And Feline

Dog Accesory Carpal Bone

Origin Most of the sternum except its front tip and from the surface of the front end of the abdomen in the region of the xiphoid process . Insertion Upper inner surface of the humerus, and onto a vertical line on the upper third to upper half of the front of the humerus. Structure The pectoralis profundus is seen on the side of the lower portion of the chest, its upper edge directed toward the shoulder joint. In the feline, the portion at the outer edge of the muscle forms a separate division...

Mentalis

Digastric Muscle The Dog

Origin Side of the front end of the lower jaw near the lower canine tooth in the dog and feline . Insertion Skin of the front of the chin. Action Pulls the chin upward, which in turn pushes the front of the lower lip upward usually against the upper lip . Structure The mentalis is located at the front of the chin in the prominence of the chin in the horse and ox . It passes downward from its bony origin to its skin insertion. The muscle fibers of both sides unite and intermingle with fat and...

Palmaris longus FELINE

Horse Flexor Digitorum Profundus

Origin Lower end of the inner surface of the humerus. Insertion Upper end of the rear surface of the upper toe bone of all the toes also into the skin and carpal pad. Action Flexes the wrist joint and the upper toe joint extends the elbow joint. Structure In felines, the superficial flexor of the digits that begins on the humerus and lies in the forearm is called the palmaris longus.