The nose is in the center of the front plane of the face. Its shape is wedgelike, its root in the forehead and its base at the center of the upper lip. As it descends from the forehead it becomes larger in width and bulk, and at its base it is held up in the middle and braced from the sides by cartilages.
The bony part of the nose descends only half way from its root and is composed of two nasal bones. The lower part is composed of cartilages, five in all: two upper, two lower laterals and one dividing the nasal cavities.
Two wedges meet on the nose, a little above the center at a point called the bridge of the nose. The direction of one is toward the base of the forehead between the eyes; that of the other toward the end of the nose, diminishing in width as it enters the bulbous portion at the tip.
Cartilages of the Nose
1 Upper lateral
2 Lower lateral
This bulb rises as two sheets of cartilage from the middle of the upper lip (septum of the nose), expands into the bulbous tip, flows over the sides, and flares out to form the alae or wings of the nostrils.
The cartilaginous portion is quite movable. The wings are raised in laughter, dilated in heavy breathing, narrowed in distaste, and wings and tip are raised in scorn, wrinkling the skin over the nose.
Average variations in noses divide them into classes. They may be small, large, or very large; concave or convex; humped, Roman or straight.
At the tips they may be elevated, horizontal, or depressed; flattened, tapering or twisted.
The wings may be delicate or puffy, round or flat, triangular, square or almond-shaped.
That part of the jaws in which the teeth are set is cylindrical in shape and controls the shape of the mouth. If the cylinder is flat in front, the lips will be thin and the mouth a slit. The greater the curve of this cylinder, the fuller and more bow-shaped will be the mouth and lips.
From the base of the nose to the upper red lip, this curtainous portion of the mouth has a central vertical groove and pillars on either side which blend into broad, drooping wings, ending at the corners of the mouth in fleshy eminences called the pillars of the mouth.
The upper red lip has a central wedge-shaped body, indented at the top by the wedge of the groove above, and two long, slender wings disappearing under the pillars of the mouth. The lower red lip has a central groove with a lateral lobe on either side. It has three surfaces: the largest depressed in
the middle at the groove, a smaller one on either side diminishing in thickness, curving outward, and not so long as those of the upper red lip.
Below the lower red lip, the curtainous portion of the mouth slopes inward and ends at the cleft in the chin. It has a small, linear central ridge and two large, lateral lobes, bounded by the pillars of the mouth.
The oval cavity of the mouth is surrounded by a circular muscle (orbicularis oris) whose fibres, overlapping at the corners, raise the skin into the folds or the pillars of the mouth.
Its outer margin is usually marked by a crease in the skin running from the wings of the nose out and down to varying distances, paralleling the pillars. Its lower end may blend into the cleft of the chin. From this muscle radiate various facial muscles of expression.
Average variations in lips present the following comparisons: thick or thin, prominent, protruding or receding. Each may be compared with the other in these respects: straight, curved or bowed, rosebud, pouting or compressed.
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