If given proportions were used, even though these proportions were the ideal average, they would result in a drawing without character. Again, to apply these so-called canons of art, the figure must be on the eye-level, upright and rigid. The least bending of the head or body would change the given proportions visually, though not actually.
From an anatomical point of view, taking the skull as a unit, horizontally, the bone of the upper arm, the humerus, is about one and one-half heads in length. The bone on the thumb side of the forearm, the radius, is about one head in length. The forearm bone, the ulna, or the little finger side, measures about one foot from elbow to wrist. The thigh bone, or femur, measures about two heads, and the leg bone, or tibia, nearly one and one-half heads.
The illustrations show three different methods of measurement; one by Dr. Paul Richer, one by Dr. William Rimmer and one by Michelangelo.
DR. PAUL RICHER AFTER COUSIN HEADS
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