1 n considering the distribution of the masses of the head, the thought of the masses must come first; that of planes, second. Planes are the front, top and sides of the masses.
It is the placing and locking of these planes or forms that gives solidity and structural symmetry to the face, and it is their relative proportion as well as the degree to which each tilts forward or backward, protrudes or recedes, that makes the more obvious differences in faces.
Heads in general should be neither too round nor too square. All heads, round or oval or square, would be without contrast in form.
In drawing, one must look for or suspect that there is more than is casually seen. The difference in drawing is in what you sense, not what you see. There is other than that which lies on the surface.
The front of a face is the front plane. The ear side is another plane. Spectacles are hinged to conform to the front and sides of a face.
The square or triangular forehead must have a front and two sides, making three planes.
The face turns at a line from each cheek bone downward to the outer side of the chin. There is also a triangular plane on each side of the nose; its base from tip to wings forms another triangular plane. There is also the square or rounded chin with planes running back from each side.
Border lines separate the front and sides of the forehead above, and cheek bones and chin below. Across from ear to cheek bone is a ridge separating two more planes which slope upward toward the forehead and downward to the chin.
Considering the masses of the head, the thought of the masses comes first, then the planes; after that the rounded parts of the head. There are four rounded forms on the skull. One on the forehead, two on the sides of the head, just above each ear, and one on the front of the face, extending from nose to chin. On each side, at the upper part of the forehead, are two rounded elevations termed the frontal eminences. These eminences often merge into one and are referred to as the frontal eminence.
The plane of the forehead slopes upward and backward to become the cranium; and the sides turn sharply to the plane of the temples.
The plane of the face, divided by the nose, is broken on each side by a line from the outer corner of the cheek bone to the center of the upper lip, making two smaller planes.
The outer of these turns to become the plane of the jaw, which also is again divided by a line marking the edge of the masseter muscle, running from the outer border of the cheek bone to the corner of the jaw, and again making two secondary planes, one toward the cheek and one toward the ear.
The relations of these masses and planes is to the moulding of a head what architecture is to a house. They vary in proportion with each individual, and must be carefully compared with a mental standard.
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