Abduction And Adduction

Turning the foot inward toward the body is called adduction. Abduction means turning away. Abduction and adduction are controlled by the tendons that pass round the inner and outer ankles. The tendons that pass round the outer ankle bone pull the foot in an outward direction. The tendons that pass round the inner ankle bone turn the foot in.

The foot is also capable of turning and elevating its inner border. The muscle that causes this movement passes from the outer to the inner side of the leg. The tendon passes over the arch of the foot to the base of the metatarsal of the great toe and is called the tibialis anticus.

1 The extensors as they pass under the annular ligament.

2 Tendons of both the long and short peroneals pass round the outer ankle to the outer side of the foot.

3 The tibialis anticus passes in front of the inner ankle to be inserted into thft hasp r»f thp. crreat tnp

Airbrushed Foot Anatomy

The Foot Inner View

Abduction DrawingsAdduction And Abduction Foot

The Foot Outer View Interlocking of the ankle with the foot

BONES AND MUSCLES OF THE FOOT

Peroneus Annular

Bones: Outer Side

1 The fibula

2 The tibia

3 The astragalus

4 The oscalcis

Muscles: Outer Side

1 The tendon Achillis

2 The extensor of the toes

3 The annular ligament

4 The peroneus

Peroneus AnnularPeroneus Annular

Bones: Inner Side

1 The tibia

2 The astragalus

3 The metatarsal

4 The phalanges

Muscles: Inner Side

1 The tibialis anticus

2 The flexor pollicis

3 The annular ligament

4 The abductor pollicis

Annular Ligament

Toes are placed on the top of the foot and descend downward by steps tending to keep flat on the ground. The little toe is an exception. The big toe, as well as the little toe, has but two steps down. The other toes have three steps to reach the ground.

Toe Abduction

The mechanical contrivance used to move the toes, is a slit in one tendon to let another tendon pass through it. A long tendon in the foot bends the first joint of the toe and passes through the short tendon which bends the second joint.

The foot has strength to support the weight of the body. It also has flexibility, elasticity and beauty of form. Its construction is the envy of the bridge builders. The arrangement of its tendons and ligaments as they bind, pass round and through slits is akin with the belt, straps and ropes of the machine.

The arch of the foot is curved from heel to toe. The arch plays freely between two bones, the inner and outer ankle. From the two ends of this arch at its base, a strong elastic ligament extends that sinks or rises as the weight of the body bears upon the arch. The foot is also arched from side to side as well as forward, across and horizontally. The bones of the foot are wedged together and bound by ligaments. The leg bones rest on the arch where it articulates with the astragalus, the key-bone or keystone of the arch. This keystone is not fixed as in masonry, but moves freely between the inner and outer condyle. The heel is on the outside of the foot. The ball of the large toe is on the inside, giving it the rotary and transverse movement already mentioned.

Anatomical Names Toes
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Anime Sketches Movement

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