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A he lower limbs are divided into three parts the thigh, the leg, and the foot. These parts correspond to the arm, the forearm, and the hand of the upper limb. The thigh extends from the pelvis to the knee, and the leg from the knee to the foot. The longest and strongest bone of the body is the femur (thigh bone). It is joined to the bones of the pelvis at the hip socket by a long neck, which carries the shaft itself out beyond the widest part of the crest. From there the femora (thigh bones)...

The Torso

Bulging Levator Scapulae

He trapezius is a diamond-shaped muscle, with upper apex at the base of the skull, lower apex well below the shoulder blades, and corners at the shoulder girdle opposite the deltoid, as though it were a continuation of From the sacrum the muscles diverge upward, while the lower ribs and lower corner of the shoulder blade diverge downward, making lesser diamonds of various definiteness of outline. The ridge of the shoulder blade is always conspicuous, pointing diagonally toward the corner of the...

The

Inner Arms Anatomical Name

The ear, irregular in form, is placed on the side of the head. The line of the ear toward the face is on a line with the upper angle of the lower jaw. The ear, in man, has lost practically all movement. It is shaped like half of a bowl with a rim turned out, and below is appended a piece of fatty tissue called a lobe. Its muscles which in primitive times, no doubt, could move it to catch faint sounds, now serve only to draw it into wrinkles, which, though varying widely, have certain definite...

Rib Cage

1 The fulcrum or hinge on which the lever works 2 The ribs have to be lifted by muscular force 3 The front end of the rib is lowered and raised by muscular force. Whether ascending or descending, the muscles hold or balance the axis on which the ribs turn. They are worked by two muscular engines, one that raises and expands the chest and the one that pulls the cage down. These opposing muscles are known as elevators and depressors. The enlargement and contraction of the chest depends on the...

Measurements

Drawing Measure Comparative

YOU have to measure, first of all, with your eye and by studying the model judge the comparative measurements of its several masses. Then measure mechanically. When measuring mechanically, hold your charcoal or pencil between the thumb and fingers and use the first finger and the tip of your charcoal to mark the extremities of the measurement you are taking. Your arm should be extended to its full length and your head so tilted that your eye is as near as possible to the shoulder of the arm you...

The Childs Head

The cranium of a child's head differs from an adult in shape, solely as a means of protection. The head is of an elongated and oval form, its greatest length being in the direction from forehead to the back of the head its widest portion lies just above the ears. The forehead is full, and protrudes to a marked degree, receding and flattening at the eyebrows. The bones of the face, as well as the jaw bones, are small. The neck is thin and short as compared with the size of the head. The lumps at...

The Fingers

Anatomical Names For Fingers

From the centre of the arch of the wrist radiate the tendons of the long muscles to the fingers and the fingers must be in line with their power, to prevent warping, so radiate from this point. But the power of the thumb has drawn the centre of radiation a trifle to its side of the wrist, so that the mechanisms of the hand are grouped around a point near its base. The clenched fingers all point to this centre, as far as crowding will permit. Half closed, as in clasping, they form arches...

The Human Head

LT first the study of heads should be in the abstract, that is, we should forget everything that distinguishes one head from another and think of the masses common to all heads. Heads are about the same size. Each is architecturally conceived, constructed and balanced each is a monumental structure. By first mentally conceiving of a head as a cube, rather than as an oval or egg-shaped form, we are able to make simple, definite calculations. The cube of the head measures about six inches wide,...

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Then draw the general direction of the neck from its center, just above the Adam's apple, to the pit, at the junction of the collar bones. Now outline the neck, comparing its width and length with the head. Draw a straight line through the length of the face, passing it through the root of the nose, which is between the eyes, and through the base of the nose where the nose centers in the upper lip. Draw another line from the base of the ear at a right angle to the one you have just drawn. On...

Pwb

Anatomical Line Drawings Shoulder Girdle

In an adult, from the extreme top to the bottom, the eyes, roughly speaking, are in the middle. The head and face of an infant may be divided in three parts, the eyes placed on the line marking the upper third, from the chin up. In all heads the base of the nose is placed half way between the eyes and chin the mouth two-thirds the distance from chin to nose. Ages between these two necessarily range somewhere between. There is also a marked difr erence in the formation of the head with varying...

I

Drawing Muscles Origin And Insertion

N treating the shoulder as a mechanical device, one tries to discover its function, its leverage and its power. The shoulder must be looked upon as the foundation of the arm. The large diagram on the opposite page shows the muscular arrangement of the shoulder blade. The arm is separated at a distance from the shoulder, showing the devices which nature has contrived in order that the arm may be pulled forward, inward or back. The origin of all the muscles shown are on the shoulder blade, while...

The Wrist And The Hand

The bones of the wrist are mortised with those of the hand, making one mass, the hand moving with the wrist. The width of the wrist is twice its thickness and where it joins the arm it diminishes in both width and thickness. There is always a step-down from the back of the arm, over the wrist, to the hand. The wrist moves with the hand on the forearm, and in combination with these has some rotary movement, but no twisting movement. The twisting movement is accomplished by the forearm. The hand...

Pencil Sketch Of Elbow Joint

Mechanical Drawing Exercises

1 The upper extremity of the elbow as seen from the front. The inner surface of the coranoid process of the ulna is curved so as to clasp the pulleylike trochlea of the humerus. 2 The lower extremity of the humerus is somewhat flat. Projecting from each side are the internal and external condyles. Between the two is the rounded groove that receives the lip of the ulna. 3 Here the bones of the arm and forearm are connected. This is a view from the front. The humerus above shows the two condyles...

Styles

Anatomical Line Drawings Shoulder Girdle

From ancient times the dress was based on the simple principle of suspension from the shoulders or from a waistband. Styles may change but the basic principles remain the same. A piece of material when held up in the air descends by gravity and depends entirely upon its support. When this is taken away it falls, flattens out and becomes inert. The character of drapery has followed the different periods in art, as well as distinguishing the work of some particular master. Therefore, it must be...

Balance

Anatomical Figure Drawing

W hen several objects are balanced at different angles, one above the other, they have a common center of gravity. In a drawing there must be a sense of security, of balance between the opposite or counteracting forces, regardless of where the center line may fall. This is true no matter what the posture may be. A standing figure whether thrown backward or forward, or to one side or the other, is stationary or static. The center of gravity, from the pit of the neck, passes through the...

Joshua Nava Arts Anatomical Drawing

Muscle Man Outline Drawings Pic

A he consciousness or idea of rhythm can not be traced to any period, or to any artist or group of artists. We know that in 1349 a group of Florentine artists formed a society for the study of the chemistry of colors, the mathematics of composition, etc., and that among these studies was the science of motion. But rhythm was not invented. It has been the measured motion of the Universe since the begining of time. There is rhythm in the movement of the sea and tides, stars and planets, trees and...

How to Draw the Figure

Anatomical Figures

Before you make a line you must have a clear conception of what you want to draw. In your mind it is necessary to have an idea of what the figure to be drawn is doing. Study the model from different angles. Sense the nature and condition of the action, or inaction. This conception is the real beginning of your drawing. Give due consideration to the placing of your drawing on the paper, for balance and arrangement. Make two marks to indicate the length of the drawing. Block in with straight...

Halflock Folds

Gesture Sketches Disney Character

The half-lock takes place every time a tubular or flattened piece of material abruptly changes its direction. When the turn is at or near a right angle, the locking is more sharp and angular when it falls in sweeping curves, the locks are more rounded and are apt to dissolve one into the other. Folds must be made to explain themselves without difficulty, therefore, must be direct and simple. Each fold must appear to be as far apart in character as the letters of the alphabet and as letters when...

Construction Of The Head

Female Anatomy Line Drawings

First draw an outline of the head, then check to see that it will take but four lines. Number one line is to be drawn first, number two line next, three and four to follow numerically. Number one line is drawn down the face touching the root and base of the nose. Number two line from the base of the ear at a right angle to number one, with no relation to the face as to where this line crosses. Number three line is drawn from the cheek bone at its greatest width to the outer border of the chin....

The Thumb

D rill master to the fingers, the hand and the forearm, is the thumb. The fingers, gathered together, form a corona around its tip. Spread out, they radiate from a common centre at its base and a line connecting their tips forms a curve whose centre is this same point. This is true of the rows of joints (knuckles) also. Bent, in any position, or closed as in clasping, the fingers form arches, each one concentric on this same basal joint of the thumb. Clenched, each circle of knuckles forms an...

Draw A Breast Bone

Drawing Collar And Breast Bones

A he thorax, or chest, is composed of bones and cartilages. It is designed not only to protect the heart and lungs, which it contains, but also to allow the whole mass to be turned and twisted with the different movements of the body. This cage is formed, at the back, by the spinal column, on the sides by the ribs, and in front by the breastbone. It protects the heart and lungs as a baseball mask protects the face its structure is yielding and elastic, so that it may serve as a bellows. The...

Expressions Of The Hand

Popular Drawings Artists

The face is well schooled to self-control as a rule, and may become an aid in dissimulation of thought and feeling. Rarely is the hand so trained and responding unconsciously to the mental states, it may reveal what the face would conceal. Like any other living thing, the hand is modified to its use. The total modification in any individual is less than one per cent but in a succession of generations it may be cumulative. Also it happens that it is the more superficial and conspicuous parts...

Anatomy Artist Landmarks

Female Anatomy Line Drawings

Architectural mouldings consist of alternate rounds and hollows, of plane or curved surfaces, placed one beneath the other to give various decorative effects by means of light and shade. The human figure, whether standing erect or bent, is composed of a few big, simple masses that in outline are not unlike the astragal, ogee, and apophyge mouldings used in architecture. Looking at the back of the figure, there is the concave sweep of the mass from head to neck, then an outward sweep to the...

Oval Construction

Anatomical Construction The Head

When heads are built on an oval, the basic idea is that the shape is rather like an egg. The main line passes through the features from top of head to chin. This is divided into three parts. The cranium and forehead of the adult occupy the top half, the lower half divided again in the middle gives the base of the nose. The mouth is placed two-thirds the distance up from chin to nose. When the head is tilted or turned, the main axis that is drawn down the face follows the oval. The divisions...

Mechanisms Of The Hand And

Anatomical Figure Drawing

Turning movement as distinguished from rotary movement flexion to each corner in rotation is not present in the wrist, but is produced by the radius or turning bone of the forearm. Movement in the wrist is confined to flexion and extension about one right angle and side-bending a little more than half a right angle, in the average hand these two combined produce some rotary movement. In movements of the wrist to extreme positions, the hand and fingers almost always participate, on account of...

Draping The Figure

Drapery Flying Drawing

When drawing folds that occur at the bending of a limb, it must be understood that drapery is either attached to, or supported at some fixed point. If the material is limited as to volume, such as the bending at the knee, the folds radiate in size and number from the fixed point of attachment as well as a point of resistance. The lower limbs vary greatly as to shape. Below the hip the thigh is round at the knee the form is square with its sides beveled forward and the broad double-bellied calf...

Perspective Of The Head

Anatomical Line Drawing

R erspective refers to the effect of distance upon the appearance of objects and planes. There are to be considered parallel perspective, angular perspective and oblique perspective. Parallel lines which do not retreat do not appear to converge. Retreating lines, whether they are above or below the eye, take a direction toward the level of the eye and meet at a point. This point is called the center of vision, and it is also the vanishing point in parallel perspective. In parallel perspective,...

The Thigh and the LEG

381 Drawings

From the head of the femur trochanter to the outside of the knee runs a band of tendon called the ilio-tibial band. It makes a straight line from the head of the thigh bone to the outside of the knee. The rectus femoris muscle makes a slightly bulging straight line from just below the iliac crest to the knee cap. On either side of the latter is a twin mass of muscles. That of the outside vastus externus makes one mass with it, and slightly overhangs the ilio-tibial band outside. That of the...

Expression

Zygomaticus Major

The variable expressions of the human face, like the varied tones of the voice, are sensed and ever changeable. Expression is not always caused by the contraction of certain muscles, but rather from the combined action of many muscles as well as the relaxation of their opposing muscles. The same group act, for example, in both the expression of smiling and laughter, in a lesser or greater degree. The eyes and mouth are surrounded by muscles of circular form. These muscles function primarily to...

Distribution Of Masses Of The Head

Face Anatomy Drawings

Four distinct forms compose the masses of the face. They are 1. The forehead, square and passing into the cranium at the top. 2. The cheek-bone region which is flat. 3. An erect, cylindrical form on which are placed the base of the nose and the mouth. 4. The triangular form of the lower jaw. From forehead to chin a face that is not flat either protrudes or recedes, curving outward or inward, alternating as to curves and squares of varied forms. In this respect a face in profile resembles...

The Chin

Lower Mandible Anatomy

Below the cleft of the chin, the chin itself protrudes. Its breadth at the base is marked by two lines which, prolonged, would meet at the septum of the nose, making a triangle that wedges upward into the base of the lower lip. It is bordered on each side by two planes which reach to the angle of the jaw. Variations in chins present the following comparisons high or low pointed or ball flat, furrowed or dimpled elongated, double, etc.

Anatomy Of The Hand

Anatomy The Hand And Wrist

In the hand are four bones, continuous with those of the fingers, called metacarpals meta, beyond, carpus, wrist . They are covered by tendons on the back, and on the front by tendons, the muscles of the thumb and little finger, and skin pads. There is a very slight movement like opening a fan between these bones. They converge on the wrist bones and are mortised almost solidly to them. The hand moves with the wrist. The dorsal tendons converge more sharply than the bones. The short muscles of...

Torsoback View

Anatomical Drawing Geometric Perspective

3 Latissimus dorsi Trapezius From occipital bone, nape ligament and spine as far as twelfth dorsal, to clavicle, acromion and ridge of shoulder blade. Action Extends head, elevates shoulder and rotates shoulder blade. The back presents numerous depressions and prominences. This is due not only to its bony structure, but to the crossing and recrossing of a number of thin layers of muscles. It should be borne in mind that the superficial or outside layers manifest themselves only when in action....

Building the Figure

Concave Rib Cage

From a piece of lath and a few inches of copper or other flexible wire, a working model of the solid portions of the body may be constructed. Cut three pieces from the lath to represent the three solid masses of the body the head, chest and hips. Approximately, the proportions of the three blocks, reduced from the skeleton, should be Head, 1 inch by s s of an inch torso, IV2 inches by IV4 inches hips, 1 inch by 1 lA inches. Drive two parallel holes perpendicularly through the center of the...

And Hips

Spine Twisted Pelvis

I he cage and the pelvic bones are connected by a portion of the spine called the lumbar region. Muscular power acts on these masses as levers and allows the body to move forwards and backwards or turn. The pelvis can be compared to a wheel with only two spokes the hub is the hip joint and the spokes are the legs which swing back and forth as in walking or running. When force is applied to the long end of a lever, the power is increased. When speed is desired, the lever is shortened. The...

Proportions of The Human Figure

Steps Drawing The Human Figure

Measurements of the human figure are divisions of the body into parts of given measurements. There are many conceptions of measuring, scientific and ideal, and they all differ. If given proportions were used, even though these proportions were the ideal average, they would result in a drawing without character. Again, to apply these so-called canons of art, the figure must be on the eye-level, upright and rigid. The least bending of the head or body would change the given proportions visually,...

Thigh

Thigh Anatomy Inner View

1 The rectus femoris arises by two tendons from the pelvis to join the common tendon of the triceps femoris a short distance above the knee. 2 The adductor muscles, longus and magnus arise from the pubic and ischium portions of the pelvis to be inserted into the whole length of the femur on its inner side. 3 Vastus externus from the femur at the great trochanter following a rough line at the back of the shaft to join the common tendon a little above the knee. 4 The vastus internus arises from...

The Armpit

Armpit Anatomy

Hollow of the arm, filled with its friction hairs, is made into a deep pit great breast muscle pectoralis major in front, and the greater latis-dorsi behind. Its floor slopes forward, downward and outward, following the slope of the chest wall. Its rear wall is deeper, since the latissimus attaches farther down the back thicker because made of two muscles latissimus and teres major and rounder because its fibres turn on themselves. The front wall is longer because the pectoral muscle attaches...

Ischial Tuberosity

Drawing Realistic Female Feet

The column of the thigh and leg diminishes in thickness as it descends to the foot. From any view it also has a reverse curve that extends its entire length. On either side a descending wedge overlaps the rounded form of the thighs and this again overlaps the square form above and below the knee joint, which is also square. The leg at the calf is triangular at the ankle it is square. Gastrocnemius From tuberosities of femur to tendon of Achilles. Action Extends foot, raises body in walking....

Round Forms Of The Head

Mathematical Proportions Human Face

The skull is rounded on both sides of the head directly on a line above the two ears. Part of this formation is the parietal bone, a thick spongy shock absorber at the side of the head, at its widest and most exposed portion. Below this, cylindrical in shape, comes the rounded portion of the face. This rounded portion corresponds to the lower portion of the face inasmuch as it has front and receding sides. The upper portion, known as the superior maxillary, is irregular in shape and descends...

Construction Of The Hand

Annular Ligament Thumb

In the hand, as in the figure, there is an action and an inaction side. The side with the greatest angle is the action side, the opposite is the inaction or straight side. With the hand turned down prone and drawn toward the body, the thumb side is the action side, the little finger the inaction side. The inaction side is straight with the arm, while the thumb is almost at right angles with it. The inaction construction line runs straight down the arm to the base of the little finger. The...

The Lower Limbs

Dressage Horse Face Drawing

Rectus femoris Vastus internus Sartorius Gracilis Semi-tendinosus Semi-membranosus Gastrocnemius Sole us Soleus From upper part of fibula and back of tibia to tendon of Achilles. Action Extends foot and lifts body in walking. Extensor Digitorum Communis extensor longus digitorum pedis From tibia and front of fibula to second and third phalanges of toes. Action Extends toes.

The Head In Light And Shade

Drawings Anatomical Planes

There is light and shade on any object on which light falls. There are light, shade, and cast shadows. The light blends into half light which again blends into a halftone, which again blends into a shadow. A cast shadow is the shadow of some object falling on some other object or form and bears a resemblance to the object from which it is cast. In the parlance of Art the variations of light and shade are in a sense numbered, catalogued and called values. Light, halftone and shade, making three...

Turning

Anatomical Movement Photos

In a human figure there are the masses of head, chest and pelvis. Each of these has a certain height, breadth and thickness. Considered as blocks, these masses balance, tilt and twist, held together in their different movements by the spinal column. As they twist and turn, the spaces between them become long, short or spiral. We might liken these movements and the spaces between the masses or blocks, to an accordion when it is being played. Here we have an angular, virile, active side, the...

Mechanism Of The

Human Body Arm

The muscles of the human body not only bend the body by muscular force, but also serve as brakes, slowing the reactions. For instance, the biceps and the brachialis anticus muscles are placed in the front of the upper arm and, by their contraction, they bend the elbow. If power ceased altogether, the forearm would drop down. But the opposing muscle slows the otherwise uncontrolled movement after the manner of a brake. This mechanism of slow motion pervades all the limbs and every movement of...

MASSES of the Shoulder and ARMS

Drawings Biceps

The masses of the shoulder, arm, forearm and hand do not join directly end to end with each other, but overlap and lie at various angles. They are joined by wedges and wedging movements. Constructing these masses first as blocks, we will have the mass of the shoulder, or deltoid muscle, with its long diameter sloping down and out, beveled off at the end its broad side facing up and out its narrow edge straight forward. This mass lies diagonally across and overlaps the mass of the arm, whose...

Abduction And Adduction

Turning the foot inward toward the body is called adduction. Abduction means turning away. Abduction and adduction are controlled by the tendons that pass round the inner and outer ankles. The tendons that pass round the outer ankle bone pull the foot in an outward direction. The tendons that pass round the inner ankle bone turn the foot in. The foot is also capable of turning and elevating its inner border. The muscle that causes this movement passes from the outer to the inner side of the...

The Skull

Buccinator Muscle

The skeleton of the head, like the cube, has six surfaces top, base, two sides or cheeks, front and back. Its bony framework is immovable, except the lower jaw, which articulates. There are twenty-two bones in the head. Eight of these bones compose the brain case and fourteen bones compose the face. The brain case is bounded in front by the frontal bone or forehead, which extends from the root of the nose to the crown of the head and laterally to the sides of the temples. The two malar bones,...

How To Draw Drapery

How Draw Drapery Step Step

Figure must first be outlined, drawn or suggested before it can be properly clothed. Clothes are supported from the shoulder, the waistband and at the hips in the costumes of both men and women. The principles of suspension are always the same. Clothes are made loose enough so that the body can have great freedom of action, allowing the limbs to move freely in every possible way. These different actions in drapery are represented by lines radiating from the points of support terminating in...

Torsoprofile

Rib Cage Under External Oblique

The erect torso presents in profile the long curve of the front, broken by depressions at the border of the breast muscle and at the umbilicus or navel into three lesser curves, almost equal in length. The back presents the sharp anterior curve of the waist, opposite the umbilicus, bending into the long posterior curve of the chest, and the shorter curve of the buttocks. The curve of the chest is broken by the almost vertical shoulder blade and the slight bulge of the latissimus below it. In...

The Foot

Anatomical Drawings Feet

A s the little finger side is the heel side of the hand, so the outside of the foot is the heel side. It is flat upon the ground, continuous with the heel it is lower than the inside even the outer ankle bone is lower and it is shorter. The inside, as though raised by the greater power of the great toe and the tendons of all the toes, is higher. To the front of the ankle is the knob that corresponds with the base of the thumb. Opposite it, on the outside, is a similar knob corresponding with...

Spiral Folds

Elbow Fabric Folds

No matter how complicated the fold appears, it can be traced to a few basic principles. These few principles should be catalogued and kept as far apart in the mind as possible. One should be able to draw at all times, any one of these seven distinctive characters without notes or a model. Think of the part they play so that when confronted by the costumed model, you are less liable to get lost in depicting these ever changing folds. The arrangements of curved and diagonal lines fit the rounded...

The Neck

Drawing Naked Women Draw Anime

I. he neck is cylindrical in shape, following the curve of the spinal column even when the head is thrown back the neck curves slightly forward. In front, it is rooted at the chest and canopied above by the chin. In back it is somewhat flattened and the back of the head overhangs it. The neck is buttressed on each side by the shoulders. From behind each ear a muscle descends inward to the root of the neck. These muscles almost meet each other, making a point at the pit. They form, in fact, on...

Distribution of the Masses

It is not granted many of us to remember complex forms. So in considering the human figure it is better, at first, to think only of those major forms of which it is composed, and these may be thought of and more easily remembered by a simple formula such as the following Considering the Wedging and Passing of Forms from the Front of the Figure The square ankle passes into the triangular calf of the leg and this in turn passes into the square knee. The square knee passes into the round thigh and...

Little Finger Side Of The Hand

Angles Hand Bone Anatomy

The little finger side of the hand is the pushing side the little finger side of the wrist is the heel side. The thumb side of the hand is the pulling side. Since pulling is so much more important a function of the hand, the thumb side of hand and wrist and all the bones of that side, with the first two fingers, are larger. The little finger side of the hand sets across the end of the forearm at a sharper angle than does the thumb side. It is narrower and never wholly conceals the rest of the...

W U vJ

Baby Face Side View Pencil

In looking down on an object you will see more or less the top of the object. If the object is a head, you will see the top of the head. The higher above the head you are, the more top you see, the lower you are, the less you see. The top is nearest the level of the eye and the lower part further away. In profile at eye level the center of an adult's head will be a little below where the hook of a pair of spectacles curl around the top of the ears. If this line were continuous, it would pass...

The Head In Profile

Male Human Back Muscles Sketch

In profile the masses of the head are the same the cranium, the skeleton of the face, and the jaw. The front border of the temple is seen to be a long curve, almost parallel to the curve of the cranium. The top of the cheek bone is seen to be prolonged backward toward the ear as a ridge zygoma or yoke which also marks the base of the temple. It slopes slightly down in front. From cheek bone and zygoma, where they meet, a lesser ridge is seen rising between the temple and the orbit, marking the...

The Hand Of The Baby

Finger Joint Dimples

In the hand of the baby, neither anatomical nor mechanical features are in evidence, but are alike concealed under the soft flesh and smooth skin. In fact, neither anatomical nor mechanical features are sharply defined as yet the bone is still partly cartilage, the joints still small, the muscles have not taken shape nor given shape to the skin. The wrist is quite large in comparison with its size in mature hands, and the fingers quite short and symmetrically tapering in the same comparison....

Types Of Folds

Pictures Pipe Folds Drapery

U ress materials in themselves have no form. When lying on the floor they conform to the floor thrown over a chair they take the contour of the c air on a hanger or hook, the folds descend from their support. Drapery may encircle, it may fall or it may be drawn upward. To realize this is the first step to the understanding of drapery. There is no sameness, no monotony every fold has a distinct character of its own. To show this vast difference in folds take the figure of Victory as an example....

Anime Arm Crossing

Anime Arm Crossing

Ahe arm has its base in the shoulder girdle. Its one bone, called the humerus, is cylindrical, slightly curved, with a spherical head fitting into the cup-shaped cavity of the shoulder blade. Its ball-and-socket joint is covered with a lubricating capsule and held together by strong braces of membranes and ligaments. These, crossing at different angles, brace the arm as well as allow great freedom of movement. The lower part of the arm ends at the elbow in a hinge joint, on the inner and outer...

Torso Structure

Symphysis Pubis

Rectus Abdominis From symphysis pubis to cartilages of ribs, from fifth to seventh. Action Flexes thorax. Serratus Magnus From eight upper ribs to scapula spinal edge, under surface. Action Draws shoulder blade forward, raises ribs. External Oblique From eight lower ribs to iliac crest and ligament to pubis. Action Flexes thorax.

The Knee

Knee Anatomic Landmarks

Think of the knee as a square with sides beveled forward, slightly hollowed in back and carrying the kneecap in front. When the knee is straight its bursa, or water mattress, forms a bulge on either side in the corner between the cap and its tendon, exactly opposite the joint itself. The kneecap is always above the level of the joint. The back of the knee, when bent, is hollowed by the hamstring tendons on either side. When straight, the bone becomes prominent between them, making, with these...

Zigzag Folds

Cloth Fold Drawing

As it bends the outer portion becomes rigid, and underneath it becomes more slack. The excess cloth on the inner side buckles into a more or less definite pattern which must be figured out and remembered. The twisting of this fold when bent gives an entirely new design, one which might be called a zigzag pattern. Here the pull is uneven in character. It is quick and jerky. To demonstrate this, take six single sheets of newspaper, roll them into a two-inch...

The Nose

Nose Anatomy Drawing

The nose is in the center of the front plane of the face. Its shape is wedgelike, its root in the forehead and its base at the center of the upper lip. As it descends from the forehead it becomes larger in width and bulk, and at its base it is held up in the middle and braced from the sides by cartilages. The bony part of the nose descends only half way from its root and is composed of two nasal bones. The lower part is composed of cartilages, five in all two upper, two lower laterals and one...

Complete Omide

Human Figure Bending

For more than thirty years thousands of art students crowded into George Bridgman's classes at the Art Students' League in New York to learn at first hand the method of drawing from life which was his personal contribution to art education and which in his own lifetime had become famous. Many of the best known names in contemporary painting and sculpture and commercial art were enrolled in those classes. Bridgman's vivid and articulate personality brought lively interest to the study of...

Light and Shade

Hands Anatomical Drawings

Shade with the idea that light and shade are to aid the outline you have drawn in giving the impression of solidity, breadth and depth. Keep before you the conception of a solid body of four sides composed of a few great masses, and avoid all elaborate and unnecessary tones which take away from the thought that the masses or planes on the sides must appear to be on the sides while those on the front must appear to be on the front of the body. No two tones of equal size or intensity should...

Cube Construction

Female Anatomy

When a head is built on a cube there is a sense of mass, a basis of measurement and comparison. The eye has a fixed point upon which to rest. A vertical line divides the head into two parts. These are equal, opposite, and balanced. Each side is an exact duplicate of the other. A horizontal line drawn through the lower eyelids divides the head in half. The lower portion again divided in the middle gives the base of the nose. The mouth is placed two-thirds up from the chin. Built on the form of a...

Planes Of The Head

Planes The Human Head

1 n considering the distribution of the masses of the head, the thought of the masses must come first that of planes, second. Planes are the front, top and sides of the masses. It is the placing and locking of these planes or forms that gives solidity and structural symmetry to the face, and it is their relative proportion as well as the degree to which each tilts forward or backward, protrudes or recedes, that makes the more obvious differences in faces. Heads in general should be neither too...

The Forearm

Anatomy Lower End Humerus

J. he muscles of the forearm move the wrist, the hand and fingers. They are muscular above and tendinous below. These tendons are strapped down to pass over and under the wrist and fingers. There is a great variety of formation and shape to the muscles of the forearm. There are muscles with tendons that are single and again double as they pass to the wrist and hand. The muscles act separately or in groups with quickness and precision as the occasion requires. 1 The front and inner side of the...

Pronator And Supinator

Pronator Supinator

The two muscular forces that rotate or turn the forearm, by crossing one bone over the other, are the supinator and the pronator. 1 The supinator extends from the wrist to about a third way up the bone of the upper arm. It is a long muscle. The lower third is tendinous. It rises above the outer condyle of the humerus. The upper portion is the large fleshy mass that lies on the outer and upper third of the forearm. In action it flexes as well as supinates. 2 The opposing muscle to the supinator...

Back Of The Neck

Anatomy The Jaw Bone Mouth And Throat

From the sloping platform of the shoulders the neck rises. It is buttressed on the sides by the trapezius table muscle. The table shape of this muscle appears only from the back, a diamond with lower apex well down the back. Its lateral corners arise from the shoulder girdle opposite the deltoid. Rising diagonally upward it braces the back of the head. The strength of the neck is therefore at the back, which is somewhat flat and overhung by the base of the skull. Sterno-cleido-mastoid From top...

The Handpalmar View

The palm slightly overlies the wrist, and extends to the middle of the first joint of the fingers. It is made of three portions, with the hollow of the palm between them. On the thumb side is the largest of these portions, the thenar eminence opposite it is the hypothenar eminence, and across under the knuckles is the third portion, the mounds of the palm. The thenar eminence is high, fat and soft it contains the short muscles of the thumb and forms with the bone the pyramidal first segment of...

Anatomy Of The Fingers

Extensor Digitorum Communis Action

Each of the four fingers has three bones phalanges, soldiers . Each phalanx turns on the one above, leaving exposed the end of the higher bone. There are no muscles below the knuckles but the fingers are traversed by tendons on the back, and are covered on the front by tendons and skin pads. The middle finger is the longest and largest, because in the clasped hand it is opposite the thumb and with it bears the chief burden. The little finger is the smallest and shortest and most freely movable...

Inert Folds

Anatomical Line Drawings

It is understood, of course, that cloth no matter how thick or thin has in itself no given form. A piece of cloth when thrown or dropped on the floor either flattens out or crumples up and takes on a character distinct from any other form. This crumpled up piece of cloth is not static it changes as it keeps settling in an hour's time its vigorous angles become more subdued and flattened. Still it remains a fallen piece of goods with a character distinct and apart from any other, and this...

Above Eye Level

When a cube is tilted upward in such a way that the spectator is seeing it from beneath, it is above the horizon or height of the eye. If more of one side of the cube is seen than the other, the broader side will be less in perspective than the narrower side. The narrowest side of a cube presents the more acute angle and will have its vanishing point nearest. When an object is above eye level, the lines of perspective are coming down to the level of the eye and the vanishing points will be near...

Of The Hand

Contracted Thenar Eminence

Between the knuckle of the first finger and the thumb is a bulging mass. This is the first interosseous muscle, large here on account of the exposed position of the finger, also because it aids the thumb. In clasping, it is perpendicular to the thumb and diagonal to the knuckle. It attaches to the phalanx at the knuckle, to the whole side of the thumb first segment and to the base of the metacarpal bone of the finger itself. Beyond its edge is a fold of skin, alternately drawn into a half-moon...

The Handback View

Line Drawing Inside Skeliton Bone

The tendons on the back of the hand pass quite high over the wrist. It is clearly impossible to arch the wrist both ways and flexion being so much more important a function, the extensor tendons are forced far from the centre of movement backward and outward. They converge on the low outer part of the wrist arch. Thus placed they are taut in extreme flexion, so that the fingers cannot be tightly closed. The thumb side of the wrist arch is larger, higher and projects farther forward, carrying...

Muscles Of The Hand

Extensor Pollicis Longus

9 Extensor metacarpi ossis pollicis 9 Extensor metacarpi ossis pollicis Distributed over the back are seen the extensor tendons. These represent two sets which have become blended, so have duplications and various connecting bands. Those to the thumb and little finger remain separate.