because "Vichy France" was subservient to Hitler, but "Free French" forces (who had escaped) joined the Allies, and both used the same basic national markings.

GERMANY—Germany was prohibited from having an air force by the Treaty of Versailles, which ended WW I. A secret Luftwaffe, however, was created in the early 1930s with airplanes that flew in civil markings. Proper military markings appeared when the new Luftwaffe was revealed to the world in 1935.

Crosses—White-bordered black crosses in various proportions were used from 1935 through 1939. These crosses were positioned midway between the trailing edge of the wing and the leading edge of the horizontal tail, and very close to the wing tips. After the Polish campaign that started the war, the proportions were standardized.

In the interest of reduced visibility, narrow-bordered crosses (Figure 16) were now used only on upper wing surfaces, and they were positioned 2 meters (6 feet, 6 inches) in from the wing tips.

Wide-bordered crosses (Figure 17) were used on the fuselage and on the underside of the wing, usually midway between the wing tip and the fuselage on single-engine types, and midway between the wing tip and the outer engine nacelle on multi-engine types.

Late in the war, the black part of the cross was sometimes omitted, leaving only a white border against the airplane's basic color. In other cases, the white outline was replaced by black (Figure 18).

Swastika—From 1935 through 1938, the German tail marking for all airplanes was a wide red band that covered the full chord of the fin and rudder. A white circle containing a black swastika standing on its corner was centered on the red band (Figure 19).

Before the war started, the red band and white circle were deleted from German Military

German Military Band
(Figure 16) The standard proportions of the narrow-bordered German cross, as used on upper wing surfaces from 1940 until the end of the war.
Standard Proportions Swastika

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