through 1926, the Army and Navy used the same rudder markings: three vertical stripes of equal width with red at the trailing edge, then white and blue forward (Figure 6). This duplicated the French and British markings.
After 1926, the Army deleted the vertical red and white stripes and replaced them with 13 alternating red and white stripes, as used on the American flag (Figure 7). This marking was eliminated from camouflaged Army planes in February 1941, and from all other Army planes on May 15,1942.
The most common error in present-day model and real airplane restorations occurs when the vertical blue stripe is made the same width as the horizontal stripes. Whatever the shape of the rudder, the width of the vertical blue stripe should be one-third the maximum chord of the rudder. After 1926, the Navy used rudder stripes less often, and they were eliminated by 1941. In January 1942, the Navy adopted a variation of the Army rudder stripes for camouflaged airplanes by deleting the vertical blue stripe and
running the horizontal stripes full-chord of the rudder (Figure 8). This marking was eliminated on May 15,1942, along with the red center of the star insignia.
GREAT BRITAIN—Beginning early in WW I, British Empire forces used three-color circle insignia called "roundels," and three vertical rudder stripes with the blue forward. To avoid duplication of the similar French rudder stripes, the order was reversed in 1931. By 1937, how ever, when camouflage was adopted, rudder stripes were uncommon.
Roundels—The British roundels had standard proportions and were used in three basic arrangements during WW II. Figure 9 shows the standard proportions of the Type A roundel as it was used from 1916 through June 1942
Note that the diameter of the insignia is divided into fifths. With the adoption of camouflage in 1937, the roundel was modified to Type A.1 (Figure 10) by the addition of a yellow ring around the blue, which divided the basic circle into sevenths. At first, type A.1 was used against all dark surfaces, but after 1940, it was used only on the fuselage sides of camouflaged planes. Type A was then used only on the undersides of wings, though it was used briefly on camouflaged sides in late 1939 and early 1940 in place of type A.1.
The Type B roundel originated in WW I as a reduced-visibility marking for night operations, and it remained in use on both day and night operations through WW II. Figure 11 shows that the red center was two-fifths (or 40 percent) the diameter of the overall marking. Type B was
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