B-17Cs, which the U.S. Army transferred to the British as "Fortress I." Their first combat use was a raid on Wilhelmshaven, Germany, on July 8,1941. The systems and armament of the B-17 had not been designed or modified for high-altitude operations under European combat conditions, so the Fortresses were quickly withdrawn.
In the Pacific, the few surviving B-17Cs and Ds did much better. Their perfor-
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