ft Replac. 19 ai: orevious tosks, tr>: body of the ois'.co 3 spayed using acetato iu mask thy vyr; cul fcdi ids of cotor. fiii'j pu, ol II it work involves yp'fct/iny '.tie darles', ül n.-düó fev-d hü'd-edcjec areas firs:, the- dtive'oping the medium and iight shades ano gradated amas

1D The granarse -shade»-, have noon ■spraysc ,ai this staos to rioeel tho cylindrical form of the o¡s:o"

12 Tno "Oü of the pisfoi 111&3 Pee" Sprayed with enuugl i variety lo dii-fc-cni-ate bülwwiri fie recess and fl ii; Ljuuy ol II it? Dis.o". Al ttie same time, the e"d ul the gudgeon p1; s L-'-'nasked and soratyed wif gradated tone.

6 ülher ureas of thf> drawing are spra/ed ir Tedium sraoe to huilr: jp :hs form ard shape nf the pisten ThB arsas coreentra-ed or "en= .ire llw recess to the top of me p stnn, the shadow ano form '.vthir, the crxiMes f<y the piston nngs (which ,-s-t.i nr■ ided in ins example;, ,=fir1 ihe Jnm on tho role lu whiul 1 ■■egudoaor. oin il¡ "illüd.

7 Tre pmcess stared n stage G is r.nn'im ied, varying 'he dopt1" of tone ar.ronding to tho direction of the I gnt source one the locaton of the area b&ng sprayed. Here trc fdcirg side of th: connecting red. the vlm . ctil oudece to H ie tup itcess and the rioii¿un:a) i^'iurces o- the grooves lu? ttie pisluri r are sprayed.

fl s stage sir/A'S 'he 'hickiess or ce.pth of the conncong od sprayed up, with sufficient contrast ane fon n to indicate the shape c cary, Notice srouid be ".dkL" ol H it; ^as ol " 'itjeo seeliufis, which "ol only allow lor accurate reposkio" tg htrt prevent accidental or damage oss.

11 The cenval senior 1 u1 the txteiiyr ul the piston is fe last s.age to ecrroiete tf>e oody of t"s piston. Also shown completed Is the cylindrical head nf the gudgeon-pin with a p'lnr,ipal highlight acose tie r.mie'' a^d reflectes - 0- c"t at the hare ijho',] ini

16 I he darkest shades are t"e last tu be app .ed, giving emphasis te. ría depths of the top recasfi, ths prawns for rha p stnn r "OS ar-d rhe rhlr.knass of the eis"o~

16 Méx. I! e ifcOvri abades c! yliublir-y a's sprayee, whteh vcluoe Ule continuation o' the grooves for ■.tie piston r-çs

13 Tro sod, cutaway rendering at the patón is completed trd II it nenian nng f il.sIui iy ili t rer i icved pro: te detail wgrk Ueii -y ««plied by ha^o wtr. pencil uuü> 1. t-iiqhi-rirto a'C scratcl 10J ii i uaii ly a siarp art blade.

16 Méx. I! e ifcOvri abades c! yliublir-y a's sprayee, whteh vcluoe Ule continuation o' the grooves for ■.tie piston r-çs

16 I he darkest shades are t"e last tu be app .ed, giving emphasis te. ría depths of the top recasfi, ths prawns for rha p stnn r "OS ar-d rhe rhlr.knass of the eis"o~

1S Tc .T'picve ?ic ocpth of contrast ard detail, it s 1 itjcessciry tc I ne-iri the y I lusted a1 sita ol lbs „slraior1 usiriy pencil and b'ush-painifld opaoue white. This aso Impovas the quality and flnlsn. Great cam nus: always l"ia tskan «her- ghnr.-Ing har.a,.as I is to twyto lose detail H-d contrast. whicr would def :o: tta exorcise and make le-' a fa: -.strate, I". 0 idviyabe lo practice with a black and white picco first, as '.osai vuiues are re<j. wlyccfil'ullable, belore mtwirg cu to noreccrrolex sobrwo'k.

17 Hie irib3k"ü I ti lad on lor the ghoatng 13 removed, saving ar image which shews na c.nnpJntn exterior of rha piaton as wall nr, the curaway section, =v^ling -he c.nnnafttlrvj red aid gudgeon pin

14 T>e atwor* is completely re oovored with new 1 naskiiy Ilm 111 preparatcfi ur l"e ghosting to be spray txJ. ! "ose areas which are :o be II ie liyllssl a-e cut and ramovsrt iirav, It ihis example these a-eas include the top of fa pstnn I igh--shaded ghosting is sprayed us r.Q ooagua white

Airbrushed Ghosted Flag

Southern Railway Merchant Navy Class; ■1-Í1-? locomotive Ellemian Unat. (liotail} Marts Franklin

Cci .yltv;, ,riree-e '[«risoral cutartisy' tje'apee.vei jstra::o" i full colcr prass" Is o fficL-1 lies when it is uquinwi to show as much da-all as posslb-s wth-o..t rjOff. ..=.inri tha dawar r. this axan-ola. 1 dais : ISkan fmrr a lam"

airhr ¡shed illtift .rtion oommissionid oy the Set-nee Museum, Lender, every aspect u' the wurluuy p-yrls u t ■iiii ticulv.1 s tear r ywirjlive hud lo be uleà'ly ï Vff , Ile pad ol tie llustm-jcri rsp-oduced ire j.das the f s rox, s'rakfl dalectora, hcilar caslnfl, i inning- boa d. boglas ar.d pari of the c king wheals wth motion gear. As wl ■ riorl r.'eani loconct 'Vos. nil- i'l-bo* includes a blast pip^: úi id «si i liter, js well as stearic yes leae from the front e l l"e oute1 Ocw -ito ire valve cheats. "e exhaust stsarri ■i i, su ed -.firouBi- pipes w"ch laad "lo tfie tine hex. On this iKOTOtlva sroka dafla:ttot wore fit tad immaniaraly alongada and o-o looting s ohtly in 'rent ot th.- f. i:.; a

VVl"oi.l rha nftH.=at fito<c defee tor trera '.vet il:"l nave h^r no oto en Ir. shew .->« the oescr oo:l win a rcii'ive-■ 11: inn n raway However, wth ■he deflector, an integral and h i j-ji ■ant pad oJ this hOCOTiotivo, in pósito", tr : oreb cit aroae aw lu hew lo shew I-e collector arie the "te'l-Or y I llie I - e Uux. "e solution as shew" "ere. was to randart-e Ire boif ard itsco"tents as se d f)h¡aots, wtiile ap ayirg the dailsoTO' as i' mane rV tinted g ass. that is., gh-js-iog ts 'orr, with the sxceotlon of f-e rin ar-d "anc ail whlc narria * solid to enhance 1-e F.-ape and iccaticn cf : íc dafeoro.

To a cssof extent, ire ruiv "y ooaio -iol: ¿ilio bee i siiuwn yhoateo, itvealiny dein Ihtuughit,

graimfn ii jom

3 orocess is coíiL' ^ee unci Hit nein' slcwv ¡r.c'Kssee " dep'.h as -l a a so b'r.1 jrjhl TJd-e.- down towafä tor- owe- erige o' "he arvwork.

A 111:, lnal staee m spraying if it sttSr iy 'ci i '.he at lading cf :~c coer, fljptt woíhrg iísrjl tu Lrotturi fi KA DA i II) I ONI

(,radnted rune means tin1 appHfa-tinn (it cotoï which changes J, radically I ioeiL dm k tu tjjjjil,'I faëlifià into dir white of the board, or blending litio another i,oli>i. When the CÓ?ÍHi)!t isiïintrnl \d. a jtfadated tone can elimínale the need iVjr Ifversgjfayed h ghl'ghi'î If sprayed with transparent wati;rei>lur uvèï a previously applied color, a translucent dtcct is possible in Vyliitlt the first color appears to shine through the second, fonal grada-lion is the pjiiicipjal ¿leans öf modeling threi-diniensloj'.al lorn:

til a: i 11t'astraI iu1 hjoad ai eus oí eradated tórtihv :ltki Colors it'.aVe a t m os p heric ba c kg rou r id s.

i undated tones aïe particularly effective In creatlrw skio I J, tor tuatnpie; a midday sky is desired; the llrsr siadatcíi tone woiüdbe a soi1, bise of y ei low ochre or. Xaples yellow running from the 11:)j L'.i.j11 up. nd blending in will] the white of the artwork a I mat a third of the way into the -i,y arm A süiiírid gradated tCMie IS I hen oversprayrd, (nit with a weaker til ix of i red. a No bleJtd ng in at about die lame point, finally, a gradated Tut se o| ce-rutean m cobah hluf is sprayed fraj i thi lopot ritt artwork to blend witn I lie I' tviotts two color'., hul fur 11n■ r down Howards the horizon, i lie facility Striuth the aitbi ash i vi' s i n p roi 11 ;ci 11 £ S ra 11 :itt-L I tones, wbeucrun a larjje or si null Scale, is one of ttip distinct advantages id tins tool. While it is possible to achieve the same result by n Li nil. it Becomes increasingly difficult tu manipulate e-.thir. areav which restrict the lite flow Of a brush and keep within pie de-| r r m i m . : bo 11 r.d a ries. In rh 1\ the control provided by masking tec h n 'c| ucs a nst ihi.' delicate quali i y oft he airbrush spra v enable llie iJluitialur Lu piodLice t^ivieSS atilda Lions.

Background Gradation

1 A ™ vtrdeH 'one Is I o he agp eo os a backdrop to the I ag The compel:: wpfliihg a-co is or c. with rrü-sing ill'1', ond i-c tookc-sund jr^ii. is cut und fiSÏTOveo. saving o1 y the I ay oiu.euled pour lu sprays.

P i ne r.olor s app en .v.- spraying ;rv. c d :-k f. liglr, nulldins ..r: the oeeper s"j.c :■"! s en , avo.r., vj tl io .-c.ying c; re, oí r "?'■'.i'.n ■= *d «n i"..'.. i i : ■ :l sv:-"çth nf or 1 oo uuieky.

s riníüf/ ftie möslqng i ri ia renovó t'ont the flag ano bordar, œyea ¡"o the grad^red oackdrop r piátlon :-r>the three-dimensional Togo c; r lo íl&g The ^e'aii atfertf ■.; to :" ow the 'lag s^n mcf-r to ti,:: le::.


Gradation Within an Oli|üCt

1 ¡K draw ng of a r bison nrgkn .1 ^ lowhg S shaped cu-ve u^-'ti" ■ prooaiid 0111II1 j:: iJigi 1 Ucard a-d ' C -.vhúlL dl.WUlkcüVí.írd With

■T---■ 11. ;iii 1 All u . 1 e lines making ■ju ¡i e - 000" are :"on cut Inm ths jjkjak hln ino.-riing "hose oh iiskS L'ie trs"sitir;nii from Inne- -o "ulb- curves

2 11 is hi' 11 owning -.Me .00 par ol It« ibbo" is removeo ¡Bid r -gfrrr oack with a piece of mask time. Tnia ssrtinn Is fsn snrayad vertically \\ I" hards of c nrtatsd CÓler* folhw ing fa fi-flps of the 'n irvs

4 ItiEíf.aal Rtncfi fissríavingjs tr-E owe pad nf ihn o^tcr "enlaonq the ¡HBsiciUfl ros-: arid <• hac* vie las: o-*a.

3 Thn iliged rnai-.k t orn siagg 2 15 isplanan. The second mask, wfiich i; afso h nrKo, é pulled book to fipxc no coititfl e* ■■■v úí the s-shapg. The yradaLicns o- this setí on a¡e lo'ned in the samo way &J 'j! 1 Ihs lirst.

All mask ig f m ras bos-" ■-- TCwed, showing tr<; .-iljto" ¡4.7-I' LIChOd vj 11 llirui,- dimensional "crm i ct-'ii iy ofpy üf.i r-adaled :0~03S el Moler. No dark shades or whirs I nyl iliyh.i have bnen ;:.dnar;.

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