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Here’s how you can draw animals in less than 15 minutes

Here’s how you can draw animals in less than 15 minutes

Turn Your Hobby Into A Business Course Review

Turn Your Hobby Into A Business Course Review

Online Art Lessons Review

Online Art Lessons Review

Articles

Sections and sectional views

Section Views Engineering Drawings

A section is used to show the detail of a component, or an assembly, on a particular plane which is known as the cutting plane. A simple bracket is shown in Fig. 8.1 and it is required to draw three sectional views. Assume that you had a bracket and cut it with a hacksaw along the line marked B-B. If you looked in the direction of the arrows then the end view B-B in the solution Fig. 8.2 , would face the viewer and the surface indicated by the cross hatching would be the actual metal which the...

Drawing The Human Head

Photo Heads

When you have mastered the procedure, try it on a series of heads showing various turns to left and right. In all views, note how each measure A-B equals measure C-D. Let us, for the sake of argument, raise an important question Is the foregoing method reliable for any stage in the rotation of the head It is. Here is the proof. Suppose that we wish to give the head its greatest possible rotation, from a front view to a full side view. First, we draw the front ovoid shape and divide it, as...

How To Hang A Ledge And Brace Door

Framed Ledged And Braced Door Drawing

The collar beam will, unless the roof settles or spreads, be in compression bat, as the latter contingency may possibly occur, it will be better to provide for its becoming a tie beam by tenoning it to the principal rafters and securing these with inns or iron straps. Not much difficulty will be experienced in making this drawing. Set off the walls to the given span, bisect the span and erect a centre line. Draw the corbels resting on the springing line, and with a radius of 19 ft. describe the...

Pencil Sketch Of Elbow Joint

Mechanical Drawing Exercises

1 The upper extremity of the elbow as seen from the front. The inner surface of the coranoid process of the ulna is curved so as to clasp the pulleylike trochlea of the humerus. 2 The lower extremity of the humerus is somewhat flat. Projecting from each side are the internal and external condyles. Between the two is the rounded groove that receives the lip of the ulna. 3 Here the bones of the arm and forearm are connected. This is a view from the front. The humerus above shows the two condyles...

Dimensioning counterbores

Engineering Drawing Counterbore

A drilling machine is used for this operation, and a typical counterboring tool is shown in Fig. 14.26. The operation involves enlarging existing holes, and the depth of the enlarged hole is controlled by a stop on the drilling machine. The location of the counterbored hole is assisted by a pilot at the tip of the tool which is a clearance fit in the previously drilled hole. A typical use for a counterbored hole is to provide a recess for the head of a screw, as shown in Fig. 14.27 or a flat...

Requirements of engineering drawings

Engineers Vice Orthographic Drawing

Engineering drawings need to communicate information that is legally binding by providing a specification. Engineering drawings therefore need to met the following requirements Engineering drawings should be unambiguous and clear. For any part of a component there must be only one interpretation. If there is more than one interpretation or indeed there is doubt or fuzziness within the one interpretation, the drawing is incomplete because it will not be a true specification. The drawing must be...

One Stroke Painting Animals

Simple One Stroke Painting Flowers

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Development of patterns from sheet materials

Pattern Development Drawings

Many articles such as cans, pipes, elbows, boxes, ducting, hoppers, etc. are manufactured from thin sheet materials. Generally a template is produced from an orthographic drawing when small quantities are required larger quantities may justify the use of press tools , and the template will include allowances for bending and seams, bearing in mind the thickness of material used. Exposed edges which may be dangerous can be wired or folded, and these processes also give added strength, e.g....

Methods of drawing an ellipse

Engineering Drawing Ellipse

Construct two concentric circles equal in diameter to the major and minor axes of the required ellipse. Let these diameters be AB and CD in Fig. 10.1. Fig. 10.1 Two-circle construction for an ellipse Fig. 10.1 Two-circle construction for an ellipse Divide the circles into any number of parts the parts do not necessarily have to be equal. The radial lines now cross the inner and outer circles. Where the radial lines cross the outer circle, draw short lines parallel to the minor axis CD. Where...

How To Shade Anime Hair

Stretches With Pencil Shading

As for the mechanics of this drawing of Oliver Rodin, a relative of the great sculptor August Rodin, you can see that the light comes from the windows in back of him, outlining his head and arms and shining through his white hair. Notice, however, that the hair tones around the forehead and ear appear rather dark, seeming to belie their true whiteness. The reason is that his hair doesn't have a smooth, planar surface like his shirt does, but instead has many tiny ridges and canyons formed by...

Dimensioning keyways parallel keys

Tapered Keyway

The method of dimensioning a parallel shaft is shown in Fig. 17.15, and a parallel hub in Fig. 17.16. Note that in each case it is essential to show the dimension to the bottom of the keyway measured across the diameter of the shaft and the bore of the hub. This practice cannot be used where either the shaft or hub is tapered, and Fig. 17.17 shows the method of dimensioning a keyway for a square or rectangular parallel key in a tapered shaft, where the keyway depth is shown from the outside...

How To Draw Manga Clothes

Udzenia Optyczne Prezentacja

Maybe if I add ink it will look better. Maybe if I add ink it will look better. Draw because you like it. Never forget the pleasure of creating and drawing. The essence of improving your manga is to have fun doing it. The only way to improve is to use your eyes. Get to the bottom of what and why things don't look right and fix them. Get to the bottom of what and why things don't look right and fix them. It's hard to admit your own mistakes. But you won't be able to improve as an artist unless...

Using a Manikin for the Study of Anatomy

Female Figure Drawing Poses

The best way to study anatomy is to set up a book of anatomical diagrams before you, and set up an art-Store manikin alongside it. Draw tlie action from the manikin and the muscles from the book. You can also make rough sketches of the manikin itself for general bulk and action only, Just copying anatomical diagrams does not seem very helpful to most students. The muscles must somehow be built upon a frame or figure in order to get their proportion and relationship to the figure as a whole. The...

Inserting Vanishing points

Figures Vanishing Point

For those unfamiliar with the concept of perspective lines, the short definition is it's a means to create three-dimensional objects easily and accurately. I could go into great detail about the various types of perspective lines you can create, but you can find many wonderful books on drawing that explain the technique far better than I can in this book. Be sure to check out Chapter 16 for one of my personal favorite books on drawing comics. If you've done work with perspective lines before,...

The Mouth analysis and structure

Drawing Human Body For Fashion Design

The mouth is made up of two moving parts, the smaller and broader upper lip and the larger and fleshier lower lip. Where the lips join corresponds to a point one-third across each eye AA' BB' . The trapezoidal sulcus is found between the nose and the mouth, its central axis dividing the mouth exactly into two equal parts. Sketches of mouths from different perspectives. Seen in profile the upper lip is more exposed than the lower. All of the visualizations are drawn with the help of lines of...

Line types and thicknesses

The standard ISO 128 1982 gives 10 line types that are defined A to K excluding the letter I . The table in Figure 3.4 shows these lines. Material medium carbon steel. All dimensions in mm. Figure 3.3 Detailed engineering drawing of the 'hardened insert', part number 2 Material medium carbon steel. All dimensions in mm. Figure 3.3 Detailed engineering drawing of the 'hardened insert', part number 2 The line types are 'thick', 'thin', 'continuous', 'straight', 'curved', 'zigzag', 'discontinuous...

Also By Andrew Loomis

Andrew Loomis Face Proportions

Figure Drawing for All It's Worth Creative Illustration Drawing the Head and Hands Three-Dimensional Drawing COPYRIGHT 1939 BY ANDREW LOOMIS FIRST PUBLISHED BY THE VIKING PRESS IN MAY 1939 BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY OF CANADA LIMITED REPRODUCED FOR EDUCATIONAL USE IN DECEMBER 2001 All drawings and text within this book are the property of their respective copyholders and should not be reproduced for any reason. They may only be used for the purpose of practice and study. DEDICATED TO EVERYONE WHO...

Aircraft Carrier Sketch

Aircraft Perspective Sketches Examples

When the ellipse is viewed from the front even if you changed the angle from the top to the bottom, this method works fine. This means that the top of the ellipse occurring at a diagonal angle is correct. Another way of looking at this is illustrated in the drawing on the left. tovever, in drawing A, i-e perspective ends up ceinc stranoe and settee. So what do ycu do Consider the fee hat there is aside that rests on the cr-xnd and a side that can ce viewed trom above. When the ellipse is viewed...

Orthographic projection

First And Third Angle Projection

Orthographic projection is the solution to the biggest problem that a draughtsman has to solve how to d aw. with sufficient clarity, a three-dimensional object on a two-dimensional piece of paper The drawing must show quite clearly the detailed outlines of all the faces and these outlines must be fully dimensioned If the object is very simple, this may be achieved with a freehand sketch. A less simple object could be drawn in either isometric or oblique projections, although both these systems...

Drawing office management and organization

Drawing Office Management

Every article used in our day-to-day lives will probably have been produced as a result of solutions to a sequence of operations and considerations, namely The initial stage will commence when an original marketable idea is seen to have a possible course of development. The concept will probably be viewed from an artistic and a technological perspective. The appearance and visual aspects of a product are very important in creating an acceptable good first impression. The technologist faces the...

Putting a Face on an Inanimate Object

Drawings Inanimate Objects

The great thing about the world of cartooning is that you can give personality to anything. The key is to add human characteristics to objects, including the way the object moves and how you make the object express itself. You can humanize any object by giving it eyes, ears, and a big mouth. By humanizing inanimate objects, you can create offbeat and unique cartoon characters to give your comic a life of its own. The next sections look at a few examples of how to draw and humanize inanimate...

Dimensioning irregular curves

Dimensioning Curves

Irregular curves may be dimensioned by the use of ordinates. To illustrate the use of ordinates, a section through the hull of a boat is shown Fig. 14.14 . Since the hull is symmetrical about the vertical centre line it is not necessary to draw both halves in full and if the curve is presented in this manner then two short thick parallel lines are drawn at each end of the profile at right angles to the centre line. The outline is also extended slightly beyond the centre line to indicate that...

Drawing nuts and bolts

It is often necessary to draw nuts and bolts and a quick easy method is required to produce a satisfactory result. Rolled thread end a Hexagon head precision bolts Fig. 16.1 Proportions of bolts, nuts and washers. A C means across corners. A F means across flats. Nuts and bolts are not normally drawn on detail drawings unless they are of a special type. They are shown on assembly drawings and, provided they are standard stock sizes, are called up in parts lists and schedules. A description of...

Formal perspective versus informal perspective

But the system of formal perspective is not without problems. Followed to the letter, strictly applied perspective rules can result in rather dry and rigid drawings. Perhaps the most serious problem with the formal perspective system is that it is so left-brained. It employs the style of left-hemisphere processing analysis, sequential logical cogitation, and mental calculations within a pre-prescribed system. There are vanishing points, horizon lines, perspective of circles and ellipses, and so...

Hole Pattern Dimensioning

Hole Pattern Dimensioning

00.25 feature-relatinfl tolerance zone cylinders 6 zones, basically related to each other and oriented to the datum 00.25 feature-relatinfl tolerance zone cylinders 6 zones, basically related to each other and oriented to the datum Actual feature axes must simultaneously lie within both tolerance zones -00.8 pattern-locating tolerance zone cylinders 6 zones, basically related to each other, basically located to the datums Actual feature axes must simultaneously lie within both tolerance zones...

The blending of lines and curves

Blending Arcs

It is usually only the very simple type of engineering detail that has an outline composed entirely of straight lines The inclusion of curves within the outline of a component may be for several reasons to eliminate sharp edges, thereby making it safer to handle to eliminate a stress centre, thereby making it stronger to avoid extra machining, thereby making it cheaper and last, but by no means least, to improve its appoarance This last reason applies particularly to those industnes which...

Conveying the Sensation of Speed

The sensation of speed is added to the force when the fist is expressed with oblique lines Draw the outline of the oblique lines in conjunction Draw the outline of the oblique lines in conjunction The arm itself can be used to express the speed's afterimage. The arm itself can be used to express the speed's afterimage. Double pass give it slightly slantec look. For a sensation of speed too fast for the naked eye, emphasize the locus of the punch with white lines. For a sensation of speed too...

How To Draw Loci For Crank Mechanism

Geometric Locus

A locus plural foci is tha path traced out by a point which moves under given definite conditions You may not have been aware ot it but you have met loo meny times before. One of the most common loci is that of a point which moves so that its distance from another fixed point remains constant, this produces a circle Another locus that you know is that ot a point which moves so that its distance from a line remains constant this produces parallel lines. Problems on loci can take several...

Portraiture Human Head Proportion

Outline Human Head

As the easiest to draw, and that which, probably, will show most clearly to the pupil the principles upon which he must rely for accuracy, let him begin with a full 01 front view of the Moutii and before making any attempt at expression he should become familiar with the actual form of the features, and be capable of delineating them knowingly. The first thing to be done is to get the beautiful line produced by the meeting of the lips. On a straight line first indicate the width of I he...

Diagonal Scale Drawing

Diagonal Scale Buy

Three examples of diagonal scales follow. This scale would be used where the drawing is twice the m of the natural object and the draughtsman has to be able to measure on a scale accurate to 01 mm The longest natural dimension is 60 mm. This length is first divided into six 10 mm intervals. The first 10 mm is then divided into 10 pans, each 1 mm wide scaled Each of these 1 mm intervals is divided with a diagonal into 10 more equal parts To construct a diagonal seal , 30 mm 1 mm, 4 m long to...

Functional and nonfunctional dimensions

Although every aspect of a component has to be dimensioned, some dimensions are naturally more important than others. Some dimensions will be critical to the correct functioning of the component and these are termed functional dimensions. Other dimensions will not be critical to correct functioning and these are termed non-functional dimensions. Functional dimensions are obviously the more important of the two and therefore will be more important when making decisions about the dimension value....

Combined detail and assembly drawings

Snap Ring Engineering Drawing

It is sometimes convenient to illustrate details with their assembly drawing on the same sheet. This practice is particularly suited to small 'one-off' or limited-production-run assemblies. It not only reduces the actual number of drawings, but also the drawing-office time spent in scheduling and printing. Figure 7.5 shows a simple application of an assembly of this type. 7.3 Assembly drawing of gear and bearing Fig. 7.5 Combined detail and assembly drawing of hub-puller

Typical AutoCAD drawings

Autocad Figures

The following examples are meant to convey to the reader the extensive range of draughting facilities available from software associated with basic programs. Obviously there is a certain amount of overlap in the scope of programs and often alternative ways of performing similar operations. Figures 3.6 and 3.7 show pictorial drawings of an engine development. A pictorial view can easily be generated after drawing orthographic views, which give the dimensions in three planes at right angles to...

Example of drawing a small hand vice

Part Drawing And Asembly Dimention

A common artefact in any workshop is a small vice. Such a small engineering vice is shown in Figure 3.1. The main body of the vice is a stubby 'U' shape in which a movable jaw is positioned between the two uprights. The movable jaw is actuated by a screw which is rotated by a small bar. Although the drawing is 'busy', the different lines help to make the artefact jump out from the page. This has been done by the use of different types of line thicknesses thick and thin and different types of...

True lengths and auxiliary views

How Draw Auxiliary Drawings

An isometric view of a rectangular block is shown in Fig. 11.1. The corners of the block are used to position a line DF in space. Three orthographic views in firstangle projection are given in Fig. 11.2, and it will be apparent that the projected length of the line DF in each of the views will be equal in length to the diagonals across each of the rectangular faces. A cross check with the isometric view will clearly show that the true length of line DF must be greater than any of the diagonals...

Achieving a Painterly Effect

Water Lillies Chinese Pencil Drawing

To see how using colored pencils with a solvent differs from using them dry. compare these two similar quick sketches. Bet Borgeson planned to draw the lily on the left, using colored pencils as a dry medium. She planned to paint its twin-in-reverse on the right, using colored pencils as a wet medium. 1. The beginning for both sketches was the same, despite the artist's plan to draw one and paint the other. She used a sheet of two-ply white Strathmore bristol for her paper surface. Colored and...

Eight-course 125mm Stepped-off Diagonal Method

Draw Heptagon Engineering Drawing

To construct a regular octagon given the diagonal, i. o. within given circle Fig. 2 29 1. Draw the circle and insert a diameter AE. 2. Construct another diagonal CO, perpendicular to the first diagonal. 3. Bisect the four quadrants thus produced to cut the circle in B. D. F, andH. To construct a regular octagon given the diameter, i.e. within a given square Fig. 2 30 1. Construct a square PORS. length of side equal to the diameter. 2. Draw the diagonals SQ and PR to intersect m T. 3. With...

Geometrical constructions and tangency

Draw Octagon With Right Angles

Students will often experience difficulty in handling problems involving two and three dimensional geometrical constructions. The examples in Chapters 9 to 13 are included in order to provide a background in solving engineering problems connected with lines, planes and space. The separate chapters are grouped around applications having similar principles. Copying a selection of these examples on the drawing board or on CAD equipment will certainly enable the reader to gain confidence. It will...

Point Perspective

Two Point Perspective Car

VANISHING POINTS CONVERGENCE LINES HORIZON LINE When I begin a sketching program I almost always start by drawing only in side views. The point of early sketch work is for the designer to 'find' many ideas in a short space of time. By sketching in side view and usually reasonably small I can generate many pages of ideas very quickly. This is mostly down to the fact that you need to think about perspective very little, and can therefore concentrate on thinking about ideas. Almost the only...

Perspective projection

Trimetric Projection

Perspective projection is as shown in Figure 2.2. Perspective projection is reality in that everything we see in the world is in perspective such that the objects always have vanishing points. Perspective projection is thus the true view of any object. Hence, we use expressions like 'putting something in perspective' Projectors radiate from a station point i.e. the eye past the object and onto the 2D picture plane. The station point is the viewing point. Although there is only one station...

The importance of proportion in portrait drawing

All drawing involves proportion, whether the subject is still life, landscape, figure drawing, or portrait drawing. Proportion is important whether an artwork's style is realistic, abstract, or completely nonobjective that is, without recognizable forms from the external world . Realistic drawing in particular depends heavily on proportional correctness. Therefore, realistic drawing is especially effective in training the eye to see the thing-as-it-is in its relational proportions. Individuals...

Enlarging and reducing plane figures and equivalent areas

Areas Plane Figures

Beginning at R. draw the sides of the larger figure parallel to the sides of the original smaller figure. This construction works equally well for reducing the size of a plane figure. Fig. 7 2 shows an irregular hexagon reduced to 4 9 its original size. These constructions are practical only if the figure which has to be enlarged or reduced has straight sides. If the outline is irregular, a different approach is needed. Fig. 7 3 shows the face of a down in two sizes, one twice that of the...

Figure Drawing Without A Model

Bone Shape Activity Skeleton

In this chapter we shall look at a number of drawing exercises devised to help you towards your goal of good imaginative figure drawing from memory. They are aimed at consolidating the information so far presented and building on the familiarity you have gained with the human figure through your frequent use of your sketchbook. Each exercise contributes in a significant way to the development of the drawing skills you will need, and in the process will help you avoid the commoner pitfalls and...

Righthand cylindrical helix

Cylindrical Helix

The helix is a curve generated on the surface of the cylinder by a point which revolves uniformly around the cylinder and at the same time either up or down its surface. The method of construction is shown in Fig. 1 Draw the front elevation and plan views of the cylinder, and divide the plan view into a convenient number of parts say 12 and number them as shown. 2 Project the points from the circumference of the base up to the front elevation. 3 Divide the lead into the same number of parts as...

House TreePerson HTP Examples

Htp Test Abusive Children

The client is a single young adult male. Records indicate that his parents were divorced when he was a toddler, and he has focused his anger on his mother. She states that while in preschool he threw a burning stick at her and was later found standing over her with a pair of scissors. These episodes never resulted in any physical injuries but would end in screaming matches. From this time forward he lived with his father, who physically abused him on numerous occasions. He has been incarcerated...

Draughting conventions associated with threads

Orthographic Drawing Threaded Hole

Threads are so regularly used on engineering drawings that recognizable conventions are required to save draughting time. Figure 15.12 shows the convention for a male thread. The thread runout along the shank of the stud is indicated by a line drawn at 30 to the thread axis. The minor diameter of the thread is shown by parallel lines and in the end elevation the projected circle is not continuous. The break in the inside circle distinguishes the end elevation of a male thread from a female...

Rule Of Proportion the human body

Fashion Design Sketch Model Outlines

1 The head measures one-eighth of the height of the body and therefore constitutes a unit of measure. 2 The distance between the temples forms the basis of the width of a shoulder from the base of the neck to the shoulder joint AB a'b' . 3 When the figure is viewed from the front, the median axis divides the figure perfectly in half. 4 The shoulders are as wide as the pelvis, the waist two-thirds of the width of the shoulders, 5 The shoulders are drown extending beyond the upper body, with the...

Sectioning or crosshatching lines

When you go to a museum, you often see artefacts that have been cut up. For example, to illustrate how a petrol engine works, the cylinder block can be cut in half and the cut faces are invariably painted red. In engineering drawing, cross-hatching is the equivalent of painting something red. It is used to show the internal details of parts which otherwise would become too complex to show or dimension. The cross-hatch lines are usually equi-spaced and, for small parts, cover the whole of the...

Figure Four Center Method Of Drawing An Isometric Ellipse

How Create Isometric Elipse

An isometric hole template may be conveniently used as a guide for drawing the hole size for which it is cut. To align the template for drawing, first draw in the hole center lines, then align the guidelines printed on the template adjacent to the desired hole with the center lines on the drawing. If you are still unsure of how to position the template, draw in the center lines and the major and minor axes of the ellipse as shown in figure 44 on the following page . Then align the template with...

Worked examples in machine drawing

Examination questions generally relate to single parts or assemblies of detailed components, and test the students' ability to draw sectional and outside views. British Standards refer to 'views' but other terms have been traditionally used in technical drawing. The front or side view of a house is quite likely to be known as an elevation and a 'birds eye view' as a plan. These expressions are freely used. The examples which follow are of examination standard and a student draughtsman would be...

Third angle projection

Design View First Angle Projection

The difference between first and third angle projection is in the arrangement of views and, with reference to the illustration in Fig. 4.4, views are now positioned as follows View B from the left is placed on the left, View C from the right is placed on the right, View D from above is placed above, View E from below is placed underneath. Study the rearrangement shown below in Fig. 4.4 and remember the above rules because it is vital that the principles of first and third angle projection are...

Screw threads and conventional representations

Drawing Metric Coarse Threads

The most common application of the helix is in a screw thread which follows the path of the helix. Screw threads may be either left or right hand and these are shown pictorially in Fig. 15.1. Notice the slope of the thread and the position of the index finger on each hand. The left hand thread is used for special applications and the right hand thread is the one normally used on nuts and bolts. The thread illustrated has a vee-section. The following terms are associated with screw threads The...

Further problems in loci

Involute Coil

After 1 6 rev. the position of P the intersection of the line Pt Pi and the radius. marked off from 0 . This is repeated for the twelve divisions Fig. 16 1 also shows the beginning of a second cycloid and it can be seen that the change from one cycloid to another is sudden. If any locus is plotted and has an instantaneous change of shape H indicates that there is e cessation of movement Anything that has mass cannot chsnge direction suddenly without first ceasing to move. The point of the...

Finishings And Trimmings

Plain Coat Drawing

Technically by elements of finishing we understand all of those features that characterize the pattern pleats, flounces, crimping, drapes, necks, pockets . By trimmings we understand the individualization of particular features and accessories which make the item of clothing distinctive and elegant buttonings, lapel facings, seams, buttons, appliqu s, etc. . In the following pages various types of patterns of finishings and trimmings both basic and sophisticated are shown, The examples are...

Using Colored Pencils with a Solvent

Prismacolor Pencils Over Watercolor

All colored pencils are to some degree turpentine soluble, but only some brands are water soluble. Those that are water soluble include the Caran D'Ache Supracolor, Venus Watercolor-ing, and Mongol brands. The Pris-macolor and Spectracolor brands are among those that are not water soluble. For the look that most closely resembles watercolor or painting, the water soluble pencils work best. Pencils that are only turpentine soluble also yield a fluid and painterly effect, but they do so with less...

Greek Torso Sculpture

Kneaded Eraser Sculpture

While Dean was in art school, he was fortunate to have several plaster casts to work from. Eventually, he could draw two of them from memory because he had drawn them dozens of times. Both were anatomical casts made by nineteenth-century sculptors One was of the planes of the human head, and the other was a life-sized sculpture depicting the musculature of the human body. The drawings on pages 170-173 are the result of a day that the authors spent in the Antique Sculpture rooms at the...

Sketch Of Pencil And Eraser

Simple Sketch Pad Drawings

If you want to draw a thin line, you will need a sharp point on the tip of your pencil. You can sharpen your pencils in two ways with a pencil sharpener or by hand, using a craft knife and a sandpaper pad. Pencil Sharpeners Are the Simplest Way to Keep Pencils Sharp A pencil sharpener is the quickest and easiest way to keep the tips of your pencils sharp. Pencil Sharpeners Are the Simplest Way to Keep Pencils Sharp A pencil sharpener is the quickest and easiest way to keep the tips of your...

Things To Remember

How Color Pencil Pineapple

Everything with an edge, lip or rim has reflected light along it. When drawing perspective remember that closer areas appear larger while areas farther away seem to shrink. When teaching, I find that many of my students will avoid heavily textured items because they seem too complicated ordifficult.Textures can be a wonderful addition to your artwork and can open the door to many fun and challenging projects. Uniquely textured objects can be found all around you. From the curtains, towels and...

The Form Principle As A Basis Of Approach

No matter what subject the artist uses or what medium he works in, there is but one solid basis of approach to a realistic interpretation of life to the representation of the natural appearance of existing forms. I cannot lay claim to being the first to perceive the truths which underlie this approach. You will find them exemplified sn all good art. They existed long before me, and will continue as long as there is light. I shall attempt only to organize these truths so as to make them workable...

How To Draw Mangawater

Drawing Manga Face

Rocks in rivers and oceans are worn down by the flow of the water and the surface of them becomes smooth. Rocks in rivers and oceans are worn down by the flow of the water and the surface of them becomes smooth. As the wave breaks, the foam quickly rises and the white water increases. First of all, the water rises up in the direction of the force. The water rises and as it reaches a peak, the foam rises. As the wave breaks, the foamed up area splits and widens to the left and right. Expressing...

Multiple Datum Reference Frames

More than one datum reference frame may be necessary for certain parts, depending upon functional requirements. In Fig. 4-24, datum features A, B, and C establish one datum reference frame, while datum features D, B, and C and datum features D, E, and B establish different datum reference frames. 4.5.11.1 Functional Datum Features. Only the required datum features should be referenced in feature control frames when specifying geometric tolerances. An understanding of the geometric control...

Drawing Asymmetrical Objects

Measuring Curvy Path Using Yarn

You can use your sketching technique on just about anything now, so scout out some appealing objects from around your home that are not symmetrical. It's important to work with your small sketchbook 6 x 8 or 8 x 10 now, because on large surfaces, beginners tend to attempt large, time-consuming pieces the size of the paper seems to call up the big project, requiring lots of time and diligence. But remember, sketching calls for setting down quick impressions. After you've collected some...

How To Draw Isometric Drawings

Famous Isometric Drawings

Form of geometry to establish the angles. As with the example of the isometric drawing, I have established the 30 angle from using a 90 right angle. You can place a right angle to the vertical and then make an approximation as to the angle of your observation. When you feel confident that the angles of the lines you are about to draw are right, use a ruler to draw them to the point where they converge. At this point you will have established for that building or object one of its vanishing...

Stepby Step Value Drawing

Light And Shadow Drawing

Use your preview tools and a light sketch to indicate the basic shape and scale of the object. If you're working with a symmetrical object, check it out on a vertical surface at viewing distance. A rt is created in layers. We begin with Jr . an underdrawing, then work on top of it in steps, as in this demonstration. Darker values, crisper contours, and more details are added gradually. Every stage is a blend of steps, including back STRATEGIES FOR FILLING IN OVERALL VALUE When you...

Spheres and guidelines

Figure Drawing The Human Face

A sphere with guidelines is a popular basic shape for drawing heads. While it is not as important as the other sketching techniques, you are going to see it a lot throughout this tutorial, especially in the chapters about animal anatomy and anthros. Now a sphere is easy enough you grab a compass, draw a circle, there's your sphere. However, we'll also need some guidelines, and that's the tricky bit. Here, take a look at some examples. As you can see, I've drawn three lines on the sphere. A...

The Relation Between Pelvis and Legs

Female Illustration Poses

Interesting Characteristics of the Thighs Interesting Characteristics of the Thighs Even for legs that look skinny from the front, the thighs will look fat when viewed in different poses or from different angles. Slender but pretty legs, with smooth curves. Legs that are quite shapely in spite of thick-set thighs. Drawing the calf with heavy lines creates a muscular look. Slender but pretty legs, with smooth curves. Legs that are quite shapely in spite of thick-set thighs. Drawing the calf with...

Continue To Layer The Skin Tones And Shadows

Pencil Strokes

Deepen the skin tone around the eyes with Henna. Add this color into the corner membranes. Notice the ridge of reflected light above the eyelid crease of the right eye. With Seashell Pink, add a slight shadow to the eyeball in the corners. Also add it below the eye on the left to enhance the look of roundness. 3DEEPENTHESKINTONES,ADDTHE EYEBROWS AND LASHES Continue to build the color of the skin tone. Use quick strokes with Black to create the eyebrows and eyelashes, tapering the pencil stroke...

Bushed bearing bracket

Hand Drill Technical Drawings

Front and end views of a bushed bearing bracket are shown in Fig. 18.1. Copy the given front view and project from it a sectional end view and a sectional plan view taken from cutting planes A-A and B-B. Figure 18.2 shows details of a table for a drilling machine. Draw half full size the following views a A front view taken as a section along the cutting plane A-A. b The given plan view with hidden detail. c An end view projected to the left of the front view with hidden detail included. 5...

Sound Proof Room Section Drawing

Field Vision Urban Design

8.1.1 Example of Isometric Projection soundproof window Position ol building walls relat ve to each other Principle of sound attenuation m air duct Section of a soundnroof window with ventilation ducts Lateral soundproofing in vent ducts i Soundproofing with various different working thick nesses and weights We shall confine ourselves to a few basic comments regarding perspective insofar as it is useful for freehand drawing, i.e., the drawing of projects, buildings, and environments. 8.2.1...

Projected Tolerance Zone

Perpendicularity Tolerance

The application of this concept is recommended where the variation in perpendicularity of threaded or press-fit holes could cause fasteners, such as screws, studs, or pins, to interfere with mating parts. See Fig. 5-31. An interference can occur where a tolerance is specified for the location of a threaded or press-fit hole, and the hole is inclined within the positional limits. Unlike the floating fastener application involving clearance holes only, the attitude of a fixed fastener is governed...

How To Draw Manga Step By Step

Drawing Manga Action Figures

Although the progress of this work is broken down into nineteen stages, it's best to bear in mind that the faster you can do the main body of the work, the more energy your finished painting is likely to have. It's all too easy to get tied up in a particular detail and leave the rest of the picture to languish, so try to move about the surface of the painting so that the whole thing evolves at a steady rate. and materials you prefer and see how different media behave when CS10 art board has a...

A closer look at creating tonal value sketches

Tonal Value

Probably the two most important factors in producing tonal value sketches are varied pencil pressure and economy of stroke. You 're not aiming for any great detail, just for the overall pattern, and tonal value contrasts. Being able to produce tonal value sketches in a professional way is almost an art in itself, and can be a joy for others to behold. You are able to concentrate on the problem in hand without distraction, producing a strong pattern with a wide range of tonal values. However,...

Locking and retaining devices

Bolts Orthographic Projection

The function of a locking device is to prevent loosening or disengagement of mating components which may be operating under varying conditions of stress, temperature and vibration. The effectiveness of the locking device may be vital to safety. One of the simplest locking devices is a locknut and these are generally thin plain nuts which are tightened against ordinary plain nuts or against components into which male threaded items are assembled. To ensure efficient locking, the bearing surfaces...

Basic Drawing Techniques

Real Scene Three Point Perspective

Taking action by adding effect lines for light also works. Classifying your note books into volumes like nature settings, buildings and various effects is When you find skillfully managed backgrounds in manga magaanes and the like.it is a good idea to collect them in a saapbook for your own reference when you draw. Taking action by adding effect lines for light also works. First, give some shape to the main buildings. Draw the surroundings paying attention to the perspective lines using the...

Fashion Skirt Sketches

How Draw Ruffles

STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING LESSON III under-skirt as they run up to the waist line. The over-skirt is also sewed on at the waist but flares more than the underskirt as it descends. XX is the edge of the fold and hangs straight down. The square is the inside crease of the fold, which also hangs straight down from the belt, the lower part only being exposed to view. Begin with the curved .me in the front of the skirt that is, after the form is well drawn , then draw XX down from the...

Creating basic head shapes

Shapes Square

Designing a head shape requires a familiarity with basic shapes and how to draw them. Though you've probably been drawing circles and squares since grade school, you may not know how to relate them to certain head shapes and the stereotypes associated with each. All you have to do is draw the basic head shape and then add the facial features you want to match your character's personality check out the sections later in this chapter for clear directions on drawing eyes, ears, a nose, and so on ....

Weeping Willow Tree Pen

Drawings Willow Trees

When drawing outside I always have elastic bands to keep the pages of my sketchpad from blowing over. I also have pieces of photocopier paper cut to my sketchbook size to place between the most recent pages used, to prevent the drawings from pressing off on to facing pages. If I am sketching with a ballpoint pen, 1 also have a piece of paper tissue to wipe the point when the ink builds up on it. This can otherwise be deposited on to the drawing as a blob. All the equipment you will need for...

Side View Of Condition

OVERLAPPING This obvious technique must be emphasized because may beginners tend to avoid it. It is based on the fact that lines of sight intercepted by an opaque object simply stop, so that objects beyond are partially or totally concealed literally blocked off . The result is a strong sense of foreground and background planes, forwardness and beyondness, in other words, DEPTH. Chapter 5 PRINCIPAL AIDS-VANISHING POINTS In views of real life, and therefore in realistic pictures, the eye level...

Exercises With Hard Pencils

In this section, we are going to introduce you to a series of projects and exercises that will give you a practical introduction to using the range of hard pencils. As we have previously said, the hard pencil makes a fine precise line. What we shall show you is how that line can be employed to demonstrate your ideas, expressions and observations. First, we must complete a series of exercises to see and experience what we can achieve with the material. In many ways these exercises are like the...

Once A Basic Shape Such As A Cube Or A Rectangular Prism Is Drawn Correctly It Can Become The Guide

Geometric Shapes Rectangular Prism

The Basic Cube Can Become The Basis For An Endless Variety Of Objects 49 And So Can The Basic Brick Shape - Look Around And See The ties of the railroad and the black lines of the structure at the right are parallel to the picture plane therefore they do not converge. The rails and the fancy lines of the structure are perpendicular to the picture plane therefore they do converge, and since the observer's central visual ray points exactly in their direction, their vanishing point must be in the...

Drawing With Soft Pencils And Graphite

Unlike the hard pencil, the soft pencil and graphite are designed to make a much heavier mark and to create a tonal range -from a very dense black through to white. The soft pencil and graphite enable you to do this quickly and efficiently. The pencil will also allow you to describe shape and form, but you must keep the lead sharpened. The types of drawings associated with these materials are more open and expressive by nature. They relate to our responses, our observations and ideas, and might...

Negative Space And Chiaroscuro

Chiaroscuro Drawing Technique

Compressed charcoal is very useful for making strong lines and very dark dramatic tones. The next series of examples will highlight how to use the medium for this purpose. The drawings use the negative space way of working we encountered in the Pencils section see the examples after Van Gogh beginning on page 40. This well established method entails drawing the space around objects to establish the composition. The second stage of the drawing requires you to look analytically at the nature of...

Perspective Drawing Of Staircase

Drawing Perspective Landscapes Roads

Drawing the first vanishing lines 1 A I The next step is to indicate the vanishing lines to the main point. Once all vanishing lines have been inserted it will be possible to outline the entire canopy on the strength of these new reference points and the estimated length and height of the canopy, which vanishes to the main point. We now draw in the spatial dimension, the step and grid for scraping off muddy shoes We should stress here that the utmost care and attention should be devoted to...

Define Realistic Drawing

Draw Shapes Below Horizon Line

To draw realistically, you must first learn to see realistically. Be aware of what is really there. What you see when you look is visual reality. Being real, everything has three dimensions height, width, and depth. Visual reality is anything which exists that you see. Examples are trees, rocks, clouds, air effects, and light. Your mind becomes so accustomed to daily surroundings that you overlook what is actually there. When you draw these subjects, you suddenly realize you are not sure of...

In Other Words The Observer Simply Points In The Same Direction As The Lines In Order To Find Their Vanishing Point

30 Why The Parallel Pointing Method Of Locating Vanishing Points Is Important In T-square and triangle perspective, this method of locating vanishing points is an essential step. Thus, to draw the object below, we first construct a top view or plan left , showing the object, the picture plane seen as a line and the observer's position. On this plan, sight lines pointing parallel to the object lines are drawn to locate the vanishing points on the picture plane. Other sight lines project the...

Examples from the Experts

Sky Painting From Great Artists

Over the years, through my work as an artist, and perhaps even more as an author, I have met and established friendships with many artists around the world. Watercolour Impressionists anil Modern Oil Impressionists were two books which widened my circle of artist friends immeasurably. I thought it would be fitting, therefore, to end this book with the work of three friends whose skies I particularly admire. All three regard skies as a very important part of their painting, and I'm sure you'll...

The construction of geometric figures from given data

Geometric Construction Drawing

Thi chapter is concerned with the construction of plane geometric figures. Plane geometry is the geometry of figures that are two-dimensional, i.e figures that have only length and breadth. Solid geometry is the geometry of three-dimensional figures. F g. 2 1 To construct a parallel line There are an endless number of plane figures but we will concern ourselves only with the more common ones the triangle, the quadrileteral and the better known Before we look at any particular figure, there are...

The Downward Gaze Vs The Closing

Gaze Diagram

The trickiest part of drawing the downward gaze is to not merely end up with a closed-looking eye. When the eyes simply close, the iris and pupil are covered in the process in the downward gaze, the eye leaves open a space large enough for the pupil to see through. This is accomplished by the bowing downward of the lower lid. A telltale crease, the signature fold for this action, appears below the lid as it moves. As the gaze drops further, the bow gets sharper and the crease deepens. The dip...

Fig Cam operated clamp

Engineering Drawing Assembly Example

This example shows a typical assembly and includes a parts list. The balloons containing the part numbers are equally spaced whenever possible. The leader lines to the components terminate in a dot. The leader line is also directed towards the centre of the balloon and touches the circumference. It is considered good policy to position the parts list and commence writing in such a way that parts can be added on to the end of the list in the event of future modifications. The list can be drawn...

Drawing Cylindrical Objects

Object Drawing Three Eye Level

After doing so many drawings with straight lines, you can probably do them now with ease and confidence. They'll become still easier as you continue with future projects. But if you're to draw objects based on the cylinder, the cone, or the sphere, you must also practice drawing the curved lines that form them. Hold your pencil still the ordinary office kind in the position you prefer the usual writing one, or under your palm. Swing your arm from your elbow, and even from the shoulder, if you...

How To Draw Perspective Projection

Perspective Drawing Projection

And touching the latter in point a, which becomes the centre of vision. Project this point to a line drawn parallel J distant 12 ft., to scale, locating the stationpoint thereon. From this point draw lines parallel with the sides of the frame a d and a-b, intersecting the H.L., which locate thereon the left-hand and right-hand vanishing points respectively. Draw the ground line G.L. 5 ft. below the ILL. and parallel therewith this locates the picture plane, upon which we can now produce the...

Unilateral and bilateral limits

Figure 19.10 shows an example of unilateral limits, where the maximum and minimum limits of size are disposed on the same side of the basic size. This system is preferred since the basic size is used for the GO limit gauge changes in the magnitude of the tolerance affect only the size of the other gauge dimension, the NOT GO gauge size. Figure 19.11 shows an example of bilateral limits, where the limits are disposed above and below the basic size. Minimum limit Maximum limit Fig. 19.10...

Conic sectionsthe ellipse the parabola the hyperbola

Conic Section Dwg

Fig. 11 1 shows the five sections that can be obtained from a cone The tnangle and the circle have been discussed in earlier chapters this chapter looks at the remain -ing three sections, the ellipse, the parabola and the hyperbola These are three very important curves. The ellipse can vary m shape from almost a circle to almost a straight line and is often used in designs because of its pleasing shape The parabola can be seen m the shape of electnc fire reflectors, rader dishes and the main...

Drawing Chrrrcter Bodies

The perspective method is illustrated below. Let's try to place the character in the box, using the bottom as the ground. Let's try to place the character in the box, using the bottom as the ground. The basic body is the skeletal structure and the nude. Aim to be able to sense the space of the body in trying to draw these basics. By Yu Kinutani Media Works Dengeki Comics EX from Angei Arm Let's find out about drawing a box based on the perspective drawing method. It is not necessary to be...

Drawing Nude in Perspective

Human Figure Perspective Drawing

One of the greatest problems in drawing seated or reclining figures is foreshortening representing the human figure or one of its parts in perspective. The art of foreshortening consists of representing the human body from points of view at which its dimensions are diminished by perspective. But foreshortening is not the same as ordinary perspective there is no need for vanishing points or any of the methods employed in linear perspective. To render a foreshortened figure, it is necessary to...

Tips On Drawing Animals

Simplified Skeleton Drawing

Bears have a tendency to be pigeon-toed. The paws of the cat family spread out slightly. Most hoofed animals are slightly knock-kneed more so when they're young. Always indicate skeleton bones,- these will hold the sketch together. Once you are familiar with the relotive size of the various bones, drawing becomes eosier It is well to divido the body into three port foroquorters, belly, and rear quarters. Sinco this is a natural division, I aid in achioving proper proportion. Draw in dorsal...

Muscular Body Motion Sketches

Whole Body Movement Drawings

As always, weight distribution affects the compensatory movements the body makes during running. The soldier at bottom right swings the heavy gun he is carrying to left and right to keep his lateral balance over whichever foot is in, or about to be in, contact with the ground this ensures that he doesn't fall over sideways. His centre of gravity is not, however, vertically above the supporting foot at any moment, as it would be if he were standing still and lifting alternate legs his whole body...

Mountains With Snow And Trees

Mountain Range With Trees Drawing

Snow-covered mountains present a variety of shapes and patterns to compose beautiful winter landscapes. I can see part of the Catskill Mountains from my studio window, and when I look at the skyline, I see a line of trees silhouetted against the sky that, to me, resembles the stubble of a beard Sketch A . Mountain ridges with trees offer many opportunities for creating interesting shapes and designs, but be careful not to make ridges parallel to each other or make trees all alike. Vary your...

Making a Viewfinder Frame

How Make Viewfinder For Art

A viewfinder can be as simple as your two hands held up to make a frame. Through your hands, you see only what is framed by them. You can make a simple viewfinder using only your hands. A viewfinder frame is a window through which you see an image and can relate the angles, lines, shapes, and parts to the measuring marks on the frame and to each other. It is as simple as using your two hands to frame a view or making a cardboard frame. If you want to use more than just your hands, but don't...

Striking with the Palm of the Hand

How Draw Manga Getting Slapped

The pros draw the wrist twisting over like this. The pros draw the wrist twisting over like this. Draw a slightly low-angle facing the chin upward Draw a slightly low-angle facing the chin upward 1 Right before impact - The line of sight looks towards the hand. 3 While being hit -To make it look like a slap, don't raise the shoulder of the attacked-character. 2 Moment of impact - One of the eyes gets pressed closed. You can draw both eyes closed too. 3 While being hit -To make it look like a...