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Photographs as a Source

In this chapter I've gathered together some photographs which I hope you'll find useful as reference material. There's no way that you could copy these precisely and in any case you wouldn't want to. However, they may be a good starting point for some experiments with skies, or even a source of inspiration. There's one technicality which I should explain here. You'll notice that many of the landscapes underneath the skies are very dark. This is because the photographers have had to underexpose the base in order to provide clarity and definition in the sky. Naturally, this isn't a problem the artist painting on site has to contend with -perhaps this is why the best paintings are still those done en plan air. As you look through these pages, you'll see that most of the photographs show a good use of cloud types. Perhaps cirrus on one side, with cumulus or cumulonimbus 011 the other. However, I think you'll agree that they are all stimulating to the imagination. I haven't included any...

Staying Grounded with Landscapes

Any time you see something that makes you think, That would be a great painting, quickly grab your camera and capture the moment. One time I pulled the car over and photographed a barn that had been standing in place for a century. It burned down the next day. Sometimes you're at the exact right spot at the right time. So keep a camera with you. You may not have time to stop and sketch or paint, but a snapshot helps you preserve a moment.

Establishing the images

4 George uses a photographic projector to transfer his studies onto canvas left). This method enables him to paint the tonal areas directly onto the surface without the presence of outlines and construction marks. You can use a home transparency projector and transfer your pictures onto the wall against which you have placed your work surface.

See And Mentally Draw The Image Of A Closefitting Box As You Study The Form Before You It Will Help To Establish True

In order to train the eye toward arrangement, pattern, and good composition the artist can begin in a more or less abstract way to play with patterns in miniature. Without worrying about subjects, he may simply try to spot masses and shapes of three 01 four different values within a squared off rectangle. Everyone has an inherent sense of balance and order which varies immensely with the individual. But this sense must be developed by experiment, just as vision is by practice. You are the only one who can do it. Reading books on composition can be helpful, but in the end your own taste and selectiveness will plan your pictures. This is educating the eye by means of the material before it and the brain behind it. We have thought about something more than outlined shapes and paint strokes. Each time you study nature you will gain additional working knowledge if you insist upon sizing up causes and effects, and then set them down, instead of slavishly copying what you see as you might...

Craft stone a Daniel Smith sable and an old worn out D Smith as a blender

I took the photos of this painting-in-progress with my digital camera in daylight. Due to natural light fluctuations, each photo differs slightly. Also, your monitor might distort the color further. If what you see looks pretty punk, kindly cut me some slack. The color and values in the original painting look very good to our team of experts* here at William Whitaker, Inc.

Computer Aided Draughting

A CD or better still a DVD writer enables back up copies to be made of valuable data and copies sent through the post. An A4 flat bed scanner enables site location plans or manufacturers' trade literature to be scanned into CAD drawings. A 4 megapixel digital camera can provide a photographic record of existing buildings and topography, saving a return trip to site.

Pixie on a Shell Myrea Pettit left

A shell collected on the artist's travels was the starting point for this charming painting of a sleeping pixie. The figure itself was drawn from one of her own photographs of children she prefers to take these when the model* are not posing, so that they appear natural and unsel(conscious. Entwined periwinkle flowers and a few toadstools were added to complete the composition. A pencil drawing was made on the working surface, and the painting mas built up with waterproof ink and watcrcolor pencils, with an eraser used to blend colors and remove areas for highlights.

Drawing and Perspective

For ilit- landscape watercolourisi drawing is of viial importance. The classic training of working from the nude figure is of equal relevance to landscape painting as ii is to figure studies. If you can draw a nude figure competently then a tree certainly holds fewer terrors. Evening classes can be useful here, especially if you work from a model or still life and do not rely entirely on photographs.

Painting a Fantasy Forest with the Image Hose

The Image Hose may be one of the most overlooked features in Painter X, possibly because the default nozzles that ship with the program are based on photographs, so they are of limited use when you paint an image. Who, after all, wants photographic elements in the middle of their painted piece The default nozzles tend to look inconsistent with most painting techniques and are generally ignored. But the Image Hose is a wonderful tool when used correctly it can make painting small repeatable elements easy and quick. There is no better tool for painting multiples like leaves, pebbles, flowers, sand, and clouds.

Univuaiii utymzea oy lYiicroSGit Gy

Photographs from casts, medals, bas-reliefs, afford excellent models for copying in monochrome painting. Copies of photographs on oval plaques are done with red brown, heightened with bitumen. Raphael's female figures on plaques for sconces, are copied in light grey, retouched with brown grey, on a ground of very light carmine No. 1.

Should Mevcabc Equal Give Onedc Edge

Simple lighting, which means lighting from a single sourcc, and the rcflcctcd light of that source, is the most perfect lighting there is. It renders form in its actual contours and bulk. True modeling of form cannot be approached any other way, since to change the normal or true value of the plane is to change and upset the form if the value is off, the form is incorrect. Since the photographer may not have reasoned this out, it is better to make your own photographs, or at least supervise the lighting of any photographic copy. The photographer hates shadows the artist loves them.

E Xray Crystallography

The general method of x-ray crystallography is the powder method, used when the material is available only in microcrystalline form such as found in the pigments in a paint layer. The x-rays fall on a mass of tiny crystals in all orientations, and the beams of each order form a cone (Figure E.9). When powder photographs are made, arcs of the cones called diffraction patterns are intercepted by a film surrounding the specimen. The powder method is used mainly in pigment analysis when one removes a sample from the painting.

Trying Out Thumbnails and Transfers

After you've drawn your image on drawing paper, or if you're working from photographs or copying the art in this book, you need a system to transfer the original image to your watercolor paper. For that, you need a red ballpoint pen, a waterproof pen (or a pencil if a pen is too permanent for you), white artist's tape, tracing paper (which is available at most drug stores and office supply stores as well as art supply stores), and some graphite paper, which is like carbon paper (if you're old enough to know what that is). Graphite paper is coated on one side with graphite, oddly enough, which transfers to whatever you press it onto.

Simplicity And How To Achieve It

Assuming that you usually do most of your oil painting indoors, you will need sketches of outdoor scenes for reference. Make a small sketch for color alone. This, coupled with pencil sketches for detail, or photographs of the spot, will provide much better source material for the final work than will an attempt to make a larger and detailed preliminary painting in the limited lime at your disposal outdoors. If your sketch box is large, try using large brushes. Concentrate Since we are going to have to simplify most subjects anyway in the finished work, it is better to start eliminating in the sketch. If you take photographs for reference you can always put back a detail here or there in the final composition, should it seem to require it.

Light on the Landscape

Cloud and sunshine are perhaps one of the best combinations, as the sky is generally more interesting and the landscape has alternating patches of sunlight and shadow. Once you have picked out your centre of interest you need 10 observe the changing light patterns across it, and also how the adjacent areas are affected. Whole mountains can change character in seconds because of these fleeting conditions. In these circumstances a camera can be useful. Students arc-always asking whether they should work from photographs. As many professionals use cameras I see no reason why students should not do likewise. This is especially true for those who cannot get out into the landscape very often. Photographs can be used in changeable conditions to capture the shadow and light situation, and are excellent when used in conjunction with the sketch.

Architectural CAD packages or programs

Daisy-wheel and dot-matrix printers have now been replaced with high resolution laser and inkjet printers, equally capable of producing text documents, colour photographs, 3D photo-realistic images and drawings. The terms 'printing' and 'plotting' now refer as much to size as to printing

Computer aided draughting and design

Sales departments utilize 3D illustrations in brochures and literature for promotional applications. Desk top publishing from within the company can very simply use illustrations generated as part of the manufacturing process. The scanning of photographs into a CAD system is also an asset especially as photographic work can be retouched, manipulated and animated. Multimedia applications with video and slide presentations form a large part of selling and advertising.

Color Light and Space

Photographs of a tree under different lighting conditions (a) on a sunlit morning and (b) at night under artificial illumination. The arrangement of light and dark areas is, for the most part, reversed in these two photographs and indicates to us lighting conditions typical of different times of the day. Fig. 4.1a,b. Photographs of a tree under different lighting conditions (a) on a sunlit morning and (b) at night under artificial illumination. The arrangement of light and dark areas is, for the most part, reversed in these two photographs and indicates to us lighting conditions typical of different times of the day.

Aircraft Carrier Manga

Manga Motorcycle Drawings

For example, take this aircraft carrier. As with drawing motorcycles, the method is the same. Consider the sections as rough blocks and draw the parts that can act as a yardstick first. When using photographs tor reference, you ill notice that the different parts are pretty promiscuous and a real First, consider the overall rough shape. You change the angle at your head. Next, with the rough shape, if you detailed accessories view several reference photographs, you can crav what you want at will. > s

Tutorial Fullsize side view rendering in Photoshop by Harald Belker

Car Sketch Side View

Now you are ready to sculpt your design. Study pictures or photographs to see how different colors with or without metallic paint reflect the environment. Have a plan of how you want to portray the body and the changes of surfaces on your design. Photoshop is a wonderful tool to allow you to add shadow and highlights to your design. Click on the dodge tool to highlight and use the burn tool to darken your image. You are working with the existing pixels and don't have to worry about masking etc. You can see how I have highlighted the shoulder of the car and put a dark core at the center of the car picking up some light from the ground again. You want to use large, soft brushes and take the time to get it right.

An Interview with Stina Persson

Stina Persson Sketch

SP - Drawing from life is necessary to train your eye. And that's what it's att about a good eye. On the other hand it's both a luxury and time consuming. Therefore I, as I think most illustrators do today, work from llat reference material, such as magazine clippings, photographs or even digital snapshots of posing family and friends. After all, there are deadlines to meet.

Part Ok ree SaUe leacls

Drawing Baby Faces

Only the iris of the eye is fully developed, which makes the eyes appear large and buttony. They appear to be farther apart than the average adult's eyes l> ccause they rest in a smaller head. Eyes set too close together are unpleasant in a baby face and can spoil a drawing. A baby's head can best be studied when the baby is sleeping. Otherwise we must turn to photographs or magazine illustrations. Babies arc l> ound to wriggle and there is nothing that we can do alx> ut it. It is therefore of great importance to fix the general or average proportions in your memory.

The Nature Of The Facial Muscles

Though Leonardo and others had mapped out the facial muscles, the function of the various muscles were not well understood until the nineteenth century. In the mid-nineteenth century, Duchenne of Boulogne found that slight electrical jolts to various points on the face caused the muscles to contract individually. His photographs of electrically-induced smiles and snarls are both strange and compelling his descriptions of which muscles do what, an important advance.

Drawing From Life

Nakano continued his practice for almost a quarter century, finally abandoning it at age ninety-three, when his eyesight began to fail. He filled about forty books with his meticulous notations and the small black-and-white photographs he glued in. Although they were not intimate by many standards, they provided distances and facts not very different from what we might find in a guidebook. But to the elderly engineer they were personal, because they were based on his subjective perceptions. And that was their undoing.

The Big Tone Approach

Here is another reason for the not-too-literal interpretation of natures complex forms and surfaces, but rather the seeking of design through the material nature presents to us. You can instantly sec how tins involves taste, selection, and inventiveness. Such an approach, then, is creative and not a passive Acceptance of facL You are adding the intelligence of vision so sadly lacking in your camera.

An Interview with Autumn Whitehurst

Autumn Whitehurst The Guilty Bride

S It so wrong to want a cakc plate What about matching cake pans, an electric lund mixer, and a double boiler Is ihat, like, wrong Oncc you have all that gear, is it so wrong to spend a whole afternoon baking a devil's food cakc with matshmallow frosting thai requires you to stand over the stove with die mixer 011 high speed, splattering boiling-hot corn syrup and egg whites all over yoor ibrearms Is it wrong to then go out to three different stores to find die special litde Cadbury chocolates (hat look like robins' eggs diat they sell only at Easier and 10 arrange them In a flower pattern on top of your magnificent cakc, which rcsrs upon its sparkling xx estiil Is it wrong to then take pictures of the cake and spend a good five minutes just gazing at it, joyfully, reverently, imagining the delight of your dinnei guests when they get a load of your magical, wondrous, unbelievable cake

Constructive Sketches

Drawing Faces Eyes Nose Mouth

The head can be compared to the geometric shape of an ovoid and this, at the beginning at least, makes drawing it simpler, as far as proportions, as well as light and shadows are concerned. Notice how the two ovoids which represent the face and the skull can be superimposed. However, the roughly round shape of the head can also be divided into flat areas. As a whole, these 'surface planes', are useful for concisely shaping areas of light and shadow. Try drawing surface planes on to photographs which show heads in a variety of positions, and learn to recognize diagrams similar to the ones above.

Drawing a blank to see better than ever

Draw Again Memres

If you have newspapers or magazines handy, check this proportion in photographs of people, or use the photo of English writer George Orwell, Figure 9-11. Use your pencil to measure. You will find that 5. Check the photographs again. In each head, is the eye level at about the middle, dividing the whole shape of the head about in half Can you clearly see that proportion If not, turn on television to a news program and measure heads right on the television screen by placing your pencil flat on the screen, measuring first eye level to chin, then eye level to the top edge of the head. Now, take the pencil away and look again. Can you see the proportion clearly now

PLATE Proportions of he little boys head

Insan Surat Nas Izilir

It is hard for little boys to sit still in drawing them, as in drawing babies, practicc from photographs and clippings. Note that the ear is coming up to the halfway line. Little boys' heads seem to extend far back because the neck is small and the muscles which attach to the base of the skull arc not yet developed.

Sunflower Fairy by Myrea Pettit

Different Realistic Faerie Drawing Poses

The inspiration for this charming Sunflower Fairy came from the artists young niece, who was photographed sitting in a tree. Children make wonderful subjects as they are so relaxed and supple in their positions, and sketching them from a series of photographs is the easy way to go about it. Don't ask them to pose candid shots look

Muscular Body Motion Sketches

Figure Drawing Without Model

Photographs from sports magazines can be useful at this stage - not, let it be stressed, as pictures to copy, for a good drawing of a running figure must be more than a frozen moment in the whole action. However, by drawing the positions of torso, limbs and so on in a simplified analytical way, you can firmly grasp and understand the complete cycle of limb movements and counter-movements.

And Other Animals In Motion

In 1887, the University of Pennsylvania first published pioneering photographer Eadweard Muybridge's Animal Locomotion, an extraordinary compilation of highspeed sequential photographs that has never been superseded as the most detailed, complete and useful visual analysis of living movement ever captured on film. Now Dover has selected the best of Muybridge's animal photographs for this first inexpensive paperbound edition. It brings an unsurpassed pictorial reference within reach of artists, photographers, animators, zoologists anyone interested in the precise dynamics of how an animal moves. Dozens of other stopped-action photographs capture split-second motions of the ox, sow, goat, dog, cat, antelope, lion, camel, elk, baboon, elephant, ostrich, pigeon, cockatoo and other animals. You'll see precisely how a cat runs how an elk trots the way a lion sets its paw down how an ostrich's head bobs exactly how a dog jumps a hurdle and many other vignettes of animals on the move. Most...

Drawing llie Figure in Costume

Pencil Drawings The Female Figure

In the drawings that follow, I have chosen costumes that are not present-day styles, since styles change so fast that even before the Iwok is published the clothes may bo wrong for the prevailing modes. Unless he is drawing a subject of an earlier period, the artist will have to keep up with styles, in order to keep his figures smart and up to date. So I have chosen costumes which are not limited as to material or style, but which present the same problems of folds and draping. As period costumes these will be used in definitely. For practice you can make pencil drawings of prevailing styles from the multitude of photographs in the fashion magazines and advertisements. Tlie important thing is to practice drawing garments on the figure, watching the lighting, the forms, and the perspective of the forms. In this kind of study I suggest eliminating most of the background, as in my studies, to keep the problem from becoming too complicated. There is enough in a good figure and costume in...

Tools to Help You Get a Better Drawing

You may be familiar with a slide projector. They project 35mm slides onto a wall or screen. Although they are getting scarce, they make a good image projector too, but only for slides. Digital projectors are replacing this technology rapidly. Digital projectors work with computers and digital cameras to project images. The good news for artists is that the new projectors give you more options, but any projector can get your image where you want it to go. Computers are amazing tools. Some artists are going completely digital by using photo manipulation programs and technologies. Many fine art shows are wary of this and don't allow digitally enhanced images. Still, computers can be a great tool to aid in preparing your reference materials. When you work from your own photographs, you can import them to the computer and use software to crop the image and manipulate the contrast, values, and colors. You even can reduce the photo to the image's outlines and edges, getting you very close to...

Robert parke harrison

Robert Parke Harrison

Robert BrkeHarrison's photographs are eerie narratives of life in a world slightly like ours but also entirely different. A single character BrkeHar -rison himself, dressed always in a simple dark suit and white shirt perches on a ladder with giant feathery wings attached to his arms or sews a gaping piece of earth with a giant needle. iW their seemingly mocha-splattered glaze and dim lighting, the photographs can be mistaken for sepias of an earlier era but their environmental storylines are utterly current. For BrkeHarrison, who creates the behemoth photographs they are as large as four by five feet)with his wife Shana, his journals are one of the most important tools in their making. The books are circular in nature, representing all stages of a photograph's making, from initial spark to printing to the ceremonial cleaning of the studio. The couple completes about ten photographs over the course of a year, each image adding to their fifteen-year-long visual narrative. At the...

Wrote this lesson in response to a number of letters to quote but one

After assembling all my sketches, color notes and photographs of the subjects I set about thinking of how exactly I was going to fit both into the one painting. I finally decided on an arrangement that would combine them by their similar facial expressions that leave no doubt as to their closeness. They are posed to look out of the picture as if challenging the world to view them in their space as they would view the world.

Technical Aids Photography

Take photographs yourself (modern automatic cameras make this easy even if you are not an expert) as they should be a term of reference rather than images to copy passively. Allow for perspective distortion and, to avoid or reduce it, do not get too close to the subject. Use, if possible, natural lighting and avoid flash which is unsuitable for portraiture.

Simplifying the Landscape

As we have seen in Chapter 7. the best aid to good composition is the use of thumbnail or studio sketches. Whether painting on location or indoors from sketches or photographs, drawing little sketches on scrap paper helps you to plan the finished composition and at the same time reduce any complicated parts of the painting. So simplification ol the overall picture should be considered at the same time as working out the composition. You may find that doing studio sketches similar to the Shrimper at Greenfield will be helpful in this respect.

Avenues for Self Promotion

Creating an annual desktop or wall-mounted calendar, for example, can work as an effective promotional device they are useful objects as well as a daily reminder of the illustrator's work. Remember though, that every print company, photographic agency, stock-image library and facilities house will have the same idea and probably bigger budgets, so that on the first Monday of January every art director in town will spend most of the morning opening large, well-sealed envelopes with calendars inside. Christmas is never a good time for sending out publicity. Although it may be a lime for giving, Christmas is not a time for receiving commissions and any promotional material sent out then will be land-fill by January,

Drawing Accurately Proportion Pics

Drawing Accurately Proportion Pics

Proportional, are used to gauge proportions of two-dimensional reference materials, such as photographs, rather than of three-dimensional objects, such as those in a still-life setup. Proportional dividers enable you to enlarge or reduce by measuring the reference with one end of the tool and then using the other end to determine the size of the image in your drawing.

Classic Illusion And Photorealism

Here we will examine the notion that good paintings can be made by simply copying photographs. To do this we shall return to the latter half of the last century when photography was all the rage and the great debate of the time was whether photography should confine itself to science or also develop as an art form. The perceived danger to painter's incomes was what spawned the impressionsists who believed representational art was doomed. Meanwhile it gave the academy painters something to think about -rather like the late 1980's when the champions of computer technology predicted the demise of newspapers and books. It seems they too were a little premature as trees seem in more danger now than then. There is little doubt that Monet,Van Gough, Renoir, Cezanne and others were artists of innovation and that the 'academy' painters such as Bouguereau and Gerome, after Ingre departed this mortal coil, were the next masters of the classic western art technique. I call such painters as...

Animal Portraits

You will find lots of reference material out there books, magazines, stock photos, clip art, and Internet photos, to name a few. They can be handy, but will not be the best way to learn to see and draw. Looking at a flat image is not the way to practice shape and form. Even detail is best seen for real and then drawn. Use the world of reference and photos only when you really need them, and try to see your way rather than copying the flatness.

Of Movement

Use your camera for all it's worth as part of your equipment. But keep it as equipment not the end, but a means, just as your knowledge of anatomy is a means. Every successful artist whom I know, though it may be heresy to say so, has a camera and uses it. Many artists I know are expert photographers, taking their own pictures and developing them. Most use the small or candid variety of camera and enlarge their prints. The camera broadens their scope tremendously in securing data outside the studio. Start saving for a camera right now if you have not already made it one of your means.

Timing is everything

Some artists collect data by doing sketches on location. Then they take the information back to the studio where they can do their painting under controlled lighting and in comfort. You can sketch with your camera, but there's no replacement for studying a subject and sketching it with watercolor and paper. Your hand, eye, and brain learn so much more this way. A camera over- and underexposes light and distorts proportions. Watercolor is a perfect way to record the colors, shapes, and angles you see.

An Opening Chat

I take this Opportunity to impress upon you, my reader, how important you really are in the whole of art procedure. You, your personality, your individuality come first. Your pictures are your by-product. Everything about your pictures is, and should be, a little of you. They will be a reflection of your knowledge, your experience, your observation, your likes and dislikes, your good taste, and your thinking. So the real concentration is centered on vou, and vour work follows along in the wake of what mental self-improvement you are making. It has taken me a lifetime to realize that. So before we talk at all about drawing, it is important to sell you strongly on yourself, to plant that urge so definitely in your consciousness that you-must know at once that most of it comes from the other end of your pencil rather than the business end.

Planning a Painting

PHOTOGRAPHS First, take your original images -sketches or photographs - and decide on the optimum composition, perhaps adding elements from other sketches or photographs. This process is aided by thumbnail sketches. Then consider a number of aspects relating to the basic planning here a studio sketch, as shown in the monochrome illustration, might help. It is impossible to plan absolutely every specific aspect of a painting before starting, but the Basic Planning Checklist will help you think about your plan of action. Some considerations, notably treatment and tones, are on-going throughout the painting.

Question

I was flying home late one night from teaching a composite drawing class. I had read every book I brought, I didn't enjoy reading any of the provided magazines, there was no movie and I was bored to tears. Fortunately, the young boy sitting next to me was also bored and was trying to sketch pictures from the flight magazine. They were very complex photographs. After watching him struggle for a few moments, I asked him if he wanted help. Sure, he said.

Visual Examination

Photography in normal, infrared (IR), and ultraviolet light is the next stage in the process. Photographs of the front of the painting under normal illuminations are accompanied by photographs using raking or tangental illumination to bring surface irregularities into bold relief.

Materials right

Exploiting photographs Visual ideas and details can often be found in photographs which, without clear visual references, might prove difficult to invent. Most artists have extensive collections of photographed material which they have built up of the subjects that particularly appeal to them. Reality, too, can be used as a source, so always try to photograph places and lighting effects you find interesting.

Iian Neil writes

One must understand that by describing Bouguereau's work as Photo-Idealism one risks classing him amongst those who merely copied photgraphs. Most critics probably do not realize that Bouguereau, like many of the great academic painters, did not rely very heavily on photographs at all -- Bouguereau, like Pietro Annigoni half a century later, preferred to work from life. The fact that his paintings are so extraordinarily verisimilutudinous is due to his enormous technical ability, and not to a slavish attitude towards representing reality photgraphically. After all, why should we declare Bouguereau to be photographic Is it true that the only *real* reality is to be found in photographs - that is obviously utter nonsense The only reality to be found is in reality itself. Bouguereau did not set out to imitate photos, although it is possible he may have spurred himself ever onwards out of the sheer delight of pushing his skills to the limit nevertheless, he wasn't a parasite or a...

The Mechanics

Pictures have changed, and it may be that the camera and photography have been the cause. This does not mean that a drawing cannot be just as vital as a camera study. Only ten years ago the artist did not fully realize what compelling interest lay in action. He had not seen photographs snapped at one thousandth of second and never dreamed that he could do this himself. Not only magazine covers but any drawing you do will have added selling power with good action. To make it the right kind of action, you will have to find out what action really is and then study it as you would anatomy, values, or any other branch of drawing.

Building tensions

The model of the tank Pzkpfw II from a purchased construction kit was made by Michael, aged 15. From this and other models he was able to take photographs (opposite) from different viewpoints, and also to arrange the objects in a variety of ways so as to arrive at interesting compositions (below).

Aesthetic Criterium

It would seem that, according to the ' primitive ' idea, likeness to the original would have little or no weight in determining the worth of a drawing or statue for we can hardly assume that the greater the likeness the more the spirit (either of the living person, or of the god, or whatever the figure may represent) would enter into, would participate in the representation. Consequently we are not at all justified in bringing a c likeness' criticism to bear on such works. This at once raises the questions What critical criterium of aesthetic values would really be applied by a c primitive ' to the productions of his own people What is his real opinion concerning the successfully imitative pictures or photographs produced by the c civilized ' man. It is much to be desired that ethnic investigators should strive to elucidate this obscure and delicate point as far as possible. Such questioning is very difficult, an elementary mind generally fails completely to deal with abstract...

Portraits

Start practising either from life, which is the most effective way, or from clear photographs. Gradually you will become accustomed to the relative shape of any head and then, even if you still don't quite capture the likeness, at least you will have a head that looks as though it belongs to a real person.

Fingers

The way you draw characterizes your work. It is one of its chief means of identification, and has positive value for you and for no one else. For this reason, if for no other, it is foolish to allow another artist's style of drawing to influence you too much. Drawing continually from photographs can be equally bad. If you draw from life the chances are that your work will contain much more individuality than it ever will if you use ready-made drawings or paintings from which proportions can be traced and copied exactly.

Coastal Subjects

Difficult conditions you can always make colour notes and follow up with some photographs later. Draw in the curve of the breaking wave, concentrating on the apex as the water starts to spill. Forget the rest of the scene just get down that small part. When the next wave arrives you must be ready to observe that pari of the wave directly below the portion already sketched. Pin in the shading under the spill and render the concave wall of water see how ii is flecked with swirling light streaks and blobs. Study the colours and how the wall of water becomes a flat, moving kaleidoscope, surging forward in front of the wave. Willi the next wave, note how ii appears lo one side of what you have sketched. Continue in this way, gradually building up your sketch and including the sea immediately beyond the wave, until you have sufficient information 10 make a painting. Note also the direction of sunlight, the colours and the surrounding scene. II you make an error, leave ii and start afresh...

Pictorial views

The use of perspective sketches, axonometric and exploded views should not be overlooked as a means of conveying information which might be difficult to document in more conventional forms. (The ability of CAD to produce three-dimensional information is of obvious benefit here.) Nor should the value of pictorial elevations, perspectives, photo montages and models be discounted as an aid to the contractor. Photographs of existing buildings are invaluable to an estimator when CAD programs printing raster printers (inkjets and lasers) will allow photographs to be incorporated into the rest of the drawings. Such pictorial aids should be clearly defined as being for informational purposes only and not possessing any contractual significance.

Organic shapes

I realize this bears an eerie resemblance to the many How to draw a < insert subject here> tutorials. But although I could add a jarring background, post it to DeviantArt, and call it a day (tempting, tempting ), I hope it's clear that this is not the intention. I'm not trying to teach you how to draw a fox, not yet at least. I'm just showing you how to approach a sketch.

Shades And Tints

Overlapping Images With Colored Pencil

Complementary colors enhance one another. When you incorporate complements into your overall composition, you can achieve stunning results that pop from the page. Whether you're creating original artwork or working from photographs, always consult the color wheel to help you choose exciting, vivid color combinations.

Portrait Composition

Figure And Faces Composition

To work in a more relaxed way you can, to start with, use photographs but drawing from life is definitely more effective. In addition, it enables you to explore new compositional routes, 'going around' the model to catch every little expressive nuance and to master the overall shape, which is so important to achieving a likeness. Render these studies by way of simple, 'clean' strokes, aiming for the overall structure of the head rather than chiaroscuro effects.

Method

All silhouettes (for the proportions) were drawn from photographs of living animals (ideally in the wild, rather than zoo animals), to capture the essence of the shape of an adult animal in profile. These are compared with other evolutionarily related animals to appreciate their similarities and differences. The goal was to present a typical image representative of the species, keeping in mind that for a single type of animal (wolf, rabbit, squirrel) there may be more than one species, subspecies, or breed that there are differences (or no difference) between males and females and that characteristics vary between individual animals. What is presented here is a reasonable norm. In obtaining photographs of animals for the profiles, there was the problem of the lack of absolute side view photographs of an entire animal, especially photos showing the feet when an animal is standing in vegetation. Zoo photos usually show the feet, but the trade-off is that the bodies of captive animals...

The Nose

Life Figure Drawing Female

The nose is rather difficult to represent as it sticks out of the face and therefore its appearance varies depending on the viewpoint. Its pyramid-like shape is partly due to two small, close together bones and partly to cartilages, and this can be seen clearly on its dorsum. Observe the sketches shown on these two pages and practise drawing the nose in various positions, referring to photographs if it makes it easier to understand its structure. Notice that the dorsum moves away from the bridge to reach maximum projection at the tip and its sides slope towards the cheeks. The triangular base hosts the nostrils, oval-shaped and slightly converging towards the tip, and delimited by the alae of the nose. Try to work out the most important areas of light and shadow (the maximum amount of light is usually on the dorsum and the tip, while the most intense shadow is at the base, near the nostrils) and indicate just those, to avoid making the drawing too 'heavy'.

Portrait Studies

Compressed sepia charcoal on 30 x 45cm (12 x 18in) paper. To draw a smiling expression effectively, use photographs as, after a few moments, the face loses 'sparkle' and the features show the effect of an unnatural, extended, effort, instead of maintaining the cheerful and pleasant attitude which characterizes the subject. Notice how the contraction of the skin muscles causes little creases at the corners of the eyes and under the lower lids. The lips look wider and slightly apart and this may cause you to get the proportions wrong - make sure you carefully evaluate them on the model. The one model you can study whenever you like and in any condition is the one you see when you look at yourself in the mirror. Practise drawing your mirror image and don't worry too much if, in the end, you won't be able to recognize yourself fully in that self-portrait. Posing is tiring and, after a short while, your usual expression will look 'drawn' and hard. You could, of course, use photographs, as...

General

Engineering Drawing Belt Pulley

The photographs in Figure Q63 show an engineer's clamp that has been made in imperial units. The jaws are 9 16 inches square and the paper used for the background is 1cm graph paper. Using scaled measurements, convert the dimensions to the nearest logical metric units and draw an assembly drawing, detail parts drawings and an item list in third angle projection. Add dimensions and tolerances sufficient for it to be made. The materials of construction are steel. 64. The photographs in Figure Q64 show a woodworking adjustable bevel which was made in imperial units. The photo shows a ruler for scaling purposes. The background is 1cm graph paper. Note that the parts photo shows four parts whereas there are really nine parts, i.e. those shown plus four rivets and the spacer plate. Using scaled measurements, convert the dimensions to the nearest logical metric units and draw an assembly drawing, detail parts drawings and an item list in third angle projection. Add dimensions and...

Planning

Giovanni produced a pencil sketch of the composition so that he could build up all the elements required within one grouping. He used a soft lead pencil on tracing paper, and worked to the size of the final painting. Tracing down After working out all the major details, and possibly reserving particular areas independently on separate sheets, he transferred the composition to the board using a hard pencil. This left a fine groove in the surface which does not appear in reproductions, but which guided him during the painting of the picture. Implementing He began by painting in the three major areas. Foreground (a) in dark sepia, middle distance (b) in purplish brown, and sky (c) in ochre. He then copied the details from photographs or his own pencil reconstruction using gouache. Development This painting was progressed from dark base colors to light areas, each successive layer of detail being produced by an increasing thickness of pigment. Large areas were produced with thin washes of...

Lighting

Angled lighting from above, midway between front and side is the type of lighting most widely used in portraiture as it properly highlights the physiognomic characteristics and effectively conveys the plasticity of the face. These two photographs vary slightly in the inclination and distance of the subject in relation to the light source.

Choosing grayscale

Sometimes you may want to scan in your original line art as a grayscale image. Grayscale means exactly what it sounds like, an image absent of color done in a range of gray shades. Most of the time this is best suited for photographs and not line art. However, in some situations you may choose to first scan in

John Copeland

Year, Tucker Shaw says he can now see a story in a bagel. What began as pure documentation has taken on a deeper meaning for Shaw, who carries a digital camera with him at all times so he can snap a snack or a four-course meal before indulging. The process has become more important than the product, he says of the photographs he began taking in January 2004. I never expected to find so much to consider in my food, such as the meaning of the same bowl of oatmeal every morning.

Emotion And The Face

One researcher, Paul Ekman, compiled a list of every study of this kind he could locate. There is a convincing pattern to the result most researchers conclude that there are certain universal expressions, and over and over again, the same six categories of expression came up sadness, anger, joy, fear, disgust, and surprise. Photographs that fell into one of these categories were seen in the same way by most people photographs that showed other expressions were not generally agreed on. As a result of such surveys, most psychologists have concluded that these six categories, and only these six, should be considered as universal.

Fluorescence

Ultraviolet radiation is strongly absorbed in pigments and paint layers. It is so strongly absorbed that through prolonged exposure, the energy transmitted to the paint can cause fading and color changes. The potential of this sort of damage has led museums to forbid the use of flashbulbs (which produce an ultraviolet component in their light) in taking photographs.

Construction Draw

Head Construction Drawing

To see many good examples of head drawings, because so few are published. In the past decade there have been few men in the field good enough to have their drawings published regularly, aside from the fact that many artists ability to draw the head is concealed by their use of mediums. I would like to call attention to the work of William Ol> erhardt, who stands almost alone in drawing the head. I hope the reader may at some time come across a few of the many drawings of his that have appeared in publications. The schools in England seem to have produced many more fine examples of head-drawing than those in America have. I think this is bccausc the young American artist tends to turn to photographs for material before he has any real knowledge of the head. The drawings in this book are offered humbly, since there are many draftsmen whose skill exceeds mine, but because of the lack of helpful books on the subject, 1 submit whatever I have to offer hopefully. Ever)' head is an...

Train your mind

Realistic Train Drawing

Many people start with a studio photograph of a family member. Though theses types of photographs are clear, large and well done, there are a few drawbacks. They're copyrighted by the photographer, so if your drawing turns out well, you can't display it. Second, the lighting is often boring. Flattering, but boring. Consider the antique photographs sitting in the attic of Great-Grandma Sparks or the wife of your second cousin once removed. An interesting drawing comes from a photograph that is easy to see, clear, large in detail, interestingly lit and preferably black and white. Artists should also own or have a clear copyright use of the photograph. You'll often find these qualities in the antique photos of your family.

The Facets of Form

How Draw Seashells

You can see in this illustration how important it is to be able to view an object from all sides before drawing. This is one reason why viewing your subject in real life is so crucial to creating convincing, realistic images. Photographs only give you a flat image of your subject, which demonstrates the shortcomings of working from photographs.

Mushroom Hats

Because they are associated with magic, fairies often wear caps of mushrooms, especially red ones. I hese help the fairies to appear and disappear at will. Fairy milliners supply hats fashioned from fly agaric, liberty caps, milk caps, bonnet myccna, and wax caps. 1 ry working from photographs and sketches of sui tably shaped varieties of fungi.

National Mentality

Before writing these last pages I developed their matter, viva voce, to an Englishman, but with the photographs in front of us. I asked him if he thought that the points I was anxious to make would be evident to the British reader when they were once indicated to him. My friend's reply for the moment amazed me. ' Yes he said, ' of course they will be evident. But your reader will say that all the same he prefers the English cathedral On reflection I saw not only the probability of this, but its reason. The art of any people is made by that people to express a national form of mentality. It includes in its formulae the expression of the desires of that people it does not include ideals foreign to the race. That such ideals should be lacking does not matter one iota either to the executant or to his public. Neither feels any want of

Refraction

Stirring Rod Refraction

Photographs of a stirring rod in a beaker. Photograph (a) is of an empty beaker, and the glass rod appears straight. Photograph (b) is of a beaker partially filled with water. The rod appears to be bent at the water surface. Fig. 6.6a,b. Photographs of a stirring rod in a beaker. Photograph (a) is of an empty beaker, and the glass rod appears straight. Photograph (b) is of a beaker partially filled with water. The rod appears to be bent at the water surface.

Small Children

Head For Children Drawing

It happens that much of my own work has been concerned with drawing children, and the more I do it, the more I find to enjoy in it. I feel that there is a mountain of fascinating truth of which I have barely scratched the surface, and this comes after drawing and painting perhaps thousands of heads of adults. Drawing children has a vast and relatively unexploited commercial market. We need more drawings of children and fewer photographs, both in advertising and on our walls. The fact that children cannot sit still need not discourage you. You can trace from photographs and still raise the quality of your rendering beyond the purely photographic detail to a more artistic expression.

Isolate

Realistic Faces Drawing

When I was a little girl, I loved horses. I loved to ride horses, and I loved to draw horses. I was very fortunate because I lived on a 680-acre ranch where we could have lots of horses. Like the drawing on the right, my first efforts at drawing a horse were typical of a young child. I knew the horse didn't look like my drawing, especially the hooves. I could see horses' hooves. I studied them. I looked at photographs, and I traced the shape of the hoof with my finger. I isolated the hoof and looked at it separately from the rest of the horse, as shown in the drawing on the right. The first artistic technique I used was to isolate the shape. Look at the works of any artist, and you will find sketches of eyes, hands and parts of the face. These artists are isolating each of the different components of the whole of the art that they will be doing.

The Journals Project

That latter one was Journal 526, the only book thus far to be returned to Brian Singer, the San Francisco-based graphic designer who began launching blank black journals in August 2000. By January 2003 Singer had set all one thousand journals adrift. The stamp inside each cover offers the following instructions Take this journal and add something to it. Stories, photographs, drawings, opinions. Anything goes. The rest is up to the finder.

Below Horizon Line

Three Point Perspective

(2) When drawing from photographs, choose high contrast, black-and-white photographs as subject matter. Anything else has differences too subtle for the beginning artist to distinguish and match. Stay away from color photos initially. It is much more difficult transposing color to black, white, and grey.

Sketching

Female Anatomy Line Drawings

Life drawing sets up the fundamentals of sketching. It is an exercise for your eyes, hands, and the entire linkage system. Life drawing not only lets you study the object with your eyes, it sometimes involves taking real measurement of the dimensions and angles, or recording the materials and textures with photographs. These routines habitually force your eyes to keenly record the image and. therefore, remember it. The fact that you remember the image is crucial to sketching from recollection or memory. Often you cannot recall images because you don't have them in your visual data bank. The idea that we can't draw often derives from the lack of anything to recall. It is not a matter of skill

Eek to Simplify

Take your camera out and record some of the shapes around you, or dig through your old pile of reference photos. Select a photo and draw its shapes-and only the main shapes, not all the details. The contour drawing exercises you learned in chapter three are perfect for training you to see and draw the shapes of things.

Using Photography

Illustrators have used photography as a reference tool for many years. For those who create drawings on location, the camera has provided an excellent memory-jogger. Many will aim to record as much information as possible on-site and then return to the studio to complete the work from the photographic reference. The final artwork may show no real evidence of the photo, but behind the scenes it has played a part nevertheless. Perhaps a more obvious use of photography for illustrators has been in the recent upsurge in the popularity of vector applications to 'trace' photographs, rather than relying on pure drawing skills. Quite simply, a photographic image, often reduced to either line or high contrast black and white in Adobe Photoshop, is placed on to a fresh layer in an application such as Adobe Illustrator or Macromedia Freehand. Use the best digital camera that you can afford or borrow and ensure that it is on the highest setting.

Solo or Group

For those who choose to join or set up a group studio, having costs of shared equipment and facilities can be financially beneficial and can lead to greater access to technology that may be out of reach for the solo trader. Buying one very good digital camera, renting a photocopier, installing a mini-kitchen or investing in a table tennis table are far simpler spread across a group.

Ampley

How Draw The Nude Human Body

Never be afraid to really examine your subject as closely as possible. A lack of understanding of your subject cannot be hidden in your drawing, and it will become apparent no matter how you try to hide it. Working from photographs will not allow you this freedom of investigation.

Trees

Trees Drawings With Leaves Blowing Away

Trees have an identifiable pattern to their foliage and a character of their own. Their trunks and branches grow in a distinctive pattern. Have you ever noticed how much color there is in a winter forest, or how a tree will lean away from its neighbor as it reaches for light and growing room While you are outdoors drawing, study the trees in your vicinity so that in time you will be able to make a maple or an oak recognizable in your pictures without showing every leaf. Shapes will tell the story.

Digital Cameras For Beginners

Digital Cameras For Beginners

Although we usually tend to think of the digital camera as the best thing since sliced bread, there are both pros and cons with its use. Nothing is available on the market that does not have both a good and a bad side, but the key is to weigh the good against the bad in order to come up with the best of both worlds.

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