Introduction

Chapter 1: FUNDAMENTALS 9

Diminution, 9 Foreshortening, 10 Convergence, 11

Overlapping... Shades and Shadows, 12

Color and Value Perspective ... Detail and Pattern Perspective .. . Focus Effect, 13 Professional Applications of Fundamentals, 14

Chapter 2: REALITY AND APPEARANCE 15

In Perspective Drawing You Draw What You See, Not Your Idea or Mental Image of the Subject, 15 Reality and Appearance—Example: United Nations Buildings from Different Viewpoints, 16 Reality and Appearance—Example: Park Bench from Different Viewpoints, 17

Chapter 3: HOW WE SEE FOR PERSPECTIVE DRAWING 18

Cone of Vision ... Central Visual Ray ... Picture Plane, 18 Basis of Perspective—Lines of Sight Through a Picture Plane, 19

Chapter 4: WHY APPEARANCE DIFFERS FROM REALITY —THEORY 20

"Lines of Sight Through Picture Plane" Applied to Diminution, 20

"Lines of Sight Through Picture Plane" Applied to Diminution and Convergence, 21

"Lines of Sight Through Picture Plane" Applied to Foreshortening and Overlapping, 22

Chapter 5: PRINCIPAL AIDS: VANISHING POINTS AND EYE LEVEL (HORIZON LINE) 23

Aid No. 1: Vanishing Points—All Lines which in Reality are

Parallel will Converge toward a Single Vanishing Point, 23 Vanishing Points (cont.) — When There are Many Sets of Parallel Lines going in Different Directions,

Each will Converge toward its own Vanishing Point, 24 Professional Examples, 25

Aid No. 2: Eye Level (Horizon Line)—All Horizontal Lines Converge to a Single Horizontal Vanishing Line, 26

What Locates the Vanishing Line for All Horizontal Lines?, 27

Why the Observer's Eye Level Dictates the Horizontal Vanishing Line — Theory, 28

What Locates the Vanishing Point of a Particular Set of Parallel Lines?, 29

Why the "Parallel Pointing" Method of Locating Vanishing Points is Important, 30

Nature's Horizon Always Appears at Observer's Eye Level. Therefore, it Can be

Used as the Vanishing Line for Horizontal Lines, 31 Why Nature's Horizon Appears at Observer's Eye Level—Theory, 32

What Happens to Eye Level (Horizon Line) When You Look Straight Out, Down or Up?, 33 Professional Examples, 34

What Happens to Eye Level (Horizon Line) When You Look Straight Out, Down or Up (cont.) ?, 35 Reasons for Choosing a Particular Eye Level (Horizon Line), 36

Chapter 6: DRAWING THE CUBE —PREREQUISITE TO UNDERSTANDING PERSPECTIVE... 37

Introduction, 37

Looking Straight Out at the Cube, 38 Professional Examples, 39 Looking Down at the Cube, 40 Professional Examples, 41 Looking Up at the Cube, 42 Professional Examples, 43

Cube Studies Applied to Drawings of United Nations Buildings, 44

Cube Studies Applied to Drawings of United Nations Buildings (cont.), 45

Many Cubes Oriented in the Same Direction Results in Only Two Sets of Converging Lines, 46

Cubes Oriented in Many Directions Results in Many Sets of Converging Lines, 47

Why a Thorough Knowledge of Simple Shapes is Important, 48

Applications of the Basic Cube and Brick Shapes, 49

Chapter 7: "ONE-POINT" AND "TWO-POINT" PERSPECTIVE — WHEN AND WHY? 50

Introduction, 50

Professional Examples, 51

Distorted and Correct One-Point Perspective, 52

Chapter 8: MORE ON LOOKING UP, DOWN, AND STRAIGHT AHEAD 53

Introduction, 53

Things Seen by Looking Straight Out and Things Seen by Looking Up, 54

Things Seen by Looking Down, 55

Review: Looking Up, Straight Out, Down, 56

Looking Straight Out, 57

Chapter 9: PERSPECTIVE DISTORTION 58

Related to Vanishing Points and to Cone of Vision, 58

Observer-Cone of Vision-Vanishing Points Relationship (Horizontal Distortion), 59 Vanishing Points Too Far Apart, 60

Chapter 10: DETERMINING HEIGHTS AND WIDTHS 61

Height Lines, 61

Heights Related to Eye Level—1: Heights When Observer is Standing, 62 2: Heights When Observer is in Elevated Position, 63

3: Heights When Observer is Sitting ... 4: Heights When Observer is Lying Down, 64 Heights Outdoors... and Indoors, 65 Professional Examples, 66

Determining Widths in Perspective—Width Lines, 67

Chapter 11: DETERMINING DEPTHS 68

Finding Center Points by Diagonals, 68 Equal Spacing by Diagonals, 69

Subdividing a Surface by Diagonals .. . Dividing a Surface into Equal Spaces by Using a Measuring Line and a Special Vanishing Point, 70

Dividing a Surface into Unequal Spaces with a Measuring Line and Special Vanishing Point, 71

Determining Depths and Widths of Room Interiors by the Measuring Line Method, 72

Another Way of Getting Depths: The Sliding Ruler and Diagonals Method, 73

Drawing Equal-Sized but Unequally-Spaced Elements—Vanishing Point of Diagonals Method, 74

Diagonals as an Aid in Drawing Concentric and Symmetrical Patterns on Rectangles and Squares, 75

Any Design or Pattern can be Reproduced in Perspective by Means of a Grid that Locates its Important Points, 76

Chapter 12: INCLINED PLANES 77

Introduction, 77

Vertical Vanishing Line and Horizon Line are Based on Same Theory and Serve Similar Purposes, 78

Uphill and Downhill (Inclined Planes), 79

Some Applications of Inclined Plane Perspective, 80

Chapter 13: CIRCLES, CYLINDERS AND CONES 81

Circles and Ellipses, 81 Drawing the Ellipse, 82

The Center of a Circle Drawn in Perspective Does Not Lie on the Corresponding Ellipse's Major Axis, 83

Cylinders, 84 Cones, 85

Professional Applications, 86

Chapter 14: SHADE AND SHADOW 87

Introduction, 87

Parallel Light Rays (Sunlight) Parallel to Observer's Face, 88 Application Sketches, 89

Parallel Light Rays (Sunlight) Oblique to Observer's Face, 90 Parallel Light Rays Oblique to Observer's Face (cont.), 91 Application Sketches, 92 Professional Examples, 93

Shade and Shadow Created by Local Point Sources of Light, 94 Application Sketches, 95 Professional Example, 96

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