## The Landscape

Throughout the centuries, even the most ardent artists and painters of the figure and still life ventured outdoors to capture aspects of the ever-changing and inspiring landscape in which they lived da Vinci, Rembrandt, and Vermeer are just a few of those artists who did so. This chapter outlines some principles to help you capture the richness of this subject matter. The Nuts and Bolts of Landscape Drawing 262 The Thumbnail Sketch The Structure of the The Planes of the Linear Perspective . 268...

## Discover the Potential of Line

In this chapter, you will learn various approaches to line drawing. When thinking about drawing with line, you may say to yourself, but I can't even draw a straight line. This shouldn't be an obstacle to working from nature because straight lines very rarely exist in nature, if at all. Introduction to Line Examples of Line Irregular Objects as Still Using a Grid for Construct a Grid . ' 129 How to Use Your Grid From the Negative to the Block In the Map It Variations - on a Palm Frond 138...

## TIP

Employing the measuring methods used in the section Measure Your Object in Chapter 4 can help you to achieve the correct proportions between the trees and the barn, as well as each individual element of the subject. If the vanishing points of your building, like our barn, fall outside of the paper on each side, you should work with a drawing board (or on a drawing table) that is wide enough so that you can plot the position of the vanishing points as a guide for the construction of your...

## Glossary

Aerial perspective The effects of humidity and pollution on color and tone as objects recede spatially. Block in To roughly draw in the subject using big shapes. Contrapposto First used by the Greeks, it is a pose where the weight of the whole figure is supported by one leg, which makes the hip move outward. The shoulder on the same side drops lower than the opposite shoulder. Cross section The representation of the shape of an object when it's sliced through at a given point. Dynamism Movement...

## Ampley

As you draw, you can become very involved in minute and unimportant details, particularly in the early stages of a drawing. Make sure that you have plenty of space to stand back from your drawing and walk around your subject. When you do so, you can judge your drawing objectively. It is very important that you are able to work with space around you. We cannot stress this point enough You need room to back away from your drawing to review your work from a distance. It will give you a fresh eye...

Dean Fisher (Milford, CT) is an instructor at the Silvermine Guild Arts Center, where he teaches drawing and painting. He is a graduate of the American Academy of Art in Chicago, Illinois, and has been featured in individual and group exhibitions around the United States and in Europe. He has exhibited at the Tatistcheff Gallery in New York City and most recently with Hirschl & Adler Modern, also in New York City. Josephine Robinson (Milford, CT) also teaches at the Silvermine Guild Arts...

These diagrams show a simple technique to help you determine the proportions of your object as it recedes into space. You can apply this technique to either a vertical or horizontal plane, as shown. The first diagram uses the horizontal plane. To draw this diagram, first draw a triangle, and then draw some converging lines within the triangle. These lines correspond to the sides of an object that you may be drawing (such as a tabletop or the top of the kitchen island shown previously), which...

## Scenes of Everyday Life

This example is taken from the authors' kitchen. The photographer is standing in front of the island, looking down. Consequently, the eye level of the photographer is above the island. Note The eye level does not change, even though he is looking down. (See Establish Your Eye Level on page 32.) Look at the sides of the island. They are converging quite dramatically to a vanishing point, just like the train tracks. The vantage point is located at the height of the eye level of the person who...

## The Half Tones

The artist noticed that the light area of the vase gradually darkens as it approaches the shadow area. This darker area within the light area is called the half tone. Careful observation and rendering of the half tone is crucial to successfully render the vase's volume. The quality of this half tone will describe whether the form turns gradually or abruptly. As more graphite was added, the artist used a tortillon (see page 17) and his finger to smooth out the transition from one tone to the...

## Stage

At this stage, the artist continued to draw the different objects, while striving for precision in the shape of each element. The palm is extremely graceful and elegant, and so it's important that the proportions and gesture of the palm be correct otherwise, those qualities won't be conveyed well. Capturing the gesture is really nothing more than recording the overall shape of each frond accurately, and then the curve of the stem as it comes off the frond. The artist also started to indicate...

## Continued On Next Page

This drawing shows a corner of a room being lit by natural light through a window. The light sifts gently over the objects and casts soft shadows. There is a shape of darker tone, running under the sink and the countertop, and in the left side of the sink. The darkest area defines the separation of the sink and the countertop. The artist has kept his shadows light to impart the sense of daylight filtering into every object and onto every surface. Kitchen Sink, by Richard Maury, courtesy of...

## Squint and Observe

While looking and squinting at your entire still life setup, determine where the lightest light and the darkest dark are (see page 55). The lightest light usually appears on the lightest or most reflective object that is closest to the light source. The darkest dark usually appears in the area that is farthest from the light source, such as a crevice or under the object (as in the still life). If you find it difficult to see the lightest light or darkest dark with your eye alone, consider where...

## In Two Point Perspective continued

In this stage, more detail is included. Always check to make sure that these elements conform to the perspective that you have already established. It is highly recommended that you use a long straight-edge to draw all of the horizontal lines to their respective vanishing points to ensure accuracy. In these images, you get a clearer idea of how the illusion of reality is developing. It isn't developed through the use of countless details, but through an approximation of the various tonal...

## Final Stage

The contrast between the tones hasn't been altered, but transitional tones were added between each plane to further enhance the level of realism in the drawing. More details were added to the deer skull, while ensuring that the overall feeling of form wasn't compromised. The artist also added some shading in various areas on the floor around the objects to suggest cast shadows. Doing this also helped to define the plane of the floor. Still Life from Above, by Dean...

## Drawings Of Roads And Buildings

As discussed in Chapter 6, be careful not to add too much detail to your drawing. By not adding a lot of detail, you will give your drawing a more natural quality. Remember that the human eye actually sees a small area of focused detail at any given time. If, however, you like your drawings to look like a photograph, as though the subject is being seen through a camera lens and not a human eye, then add as much detail as you like. Here is the finished drawing. The addition of some detail and...

## The Barn Under Construction

We will begin this drawing in a careful, methodical fashion, making sure that the initial construction lines or guidelines that you use to place your building in two-point perspective are precise. You will be happy that you took the time to do the preparatory work, especially when you begin to render your subject in light and shadow, as you will be able to concentrate on the rendering of the drawing, knowing that everything is in its right place. This can potentially save you a lot of time in...

## Find the Gesture of the Pose Quick Sketches

To draw the human figure convincingly, you must be aware of the gesture, or the movement, or position of the body. This gesture gives movement and direction to your drawing, which makes it appear more lifelike. Observing the gesture carefully helps you to understand the placement of the spine, which serves as the center of movement for the whole body. You can also think of this in the opposite way Observe the placement of the spine, and you will understand the gesture. This quick sketch...

## The Portrait

Many individuals are fascinated by the multitude of faces that they see and are compelled to draw them. However, beginners often find it too difficult a subject for them to tackle based on their skill level. In this chapter, we will attempt to demystify portrait drawing by conveying some basic principles that will help the student draw more three-dimensional, solid, and sensitive portraits. The Allure of the The Portrait in Three Facial Features Drawing a Tonal Portrait 214 Gallery Portrait...

## Planar Rendering of Complex Forms

When rendering complex forms, such as the palm fronds in Chapter 8, it is helpful to simplify the forms into facets or planes. Once you are able to think of form in these terms, you can draw more complicated three-dimensional objects. Interpret Form Through Cross-Sections of The Planes of the Hand The Planes of the Head Choose Your Subject and Prepare Your Materials 154 Let the Light Reveal the Drawing Demonstration A Palm and a Deer Skull 156 Gallery Geometric The subjects that we have been...

## Find the Gesture of the Pose Quick Sketches continued

The direction of movement in this sketch is captured with few details. The artist has simplified the pattern of light and shadow to convey a figure about to stride forward. Shadow and light have been used here to describe the form, but line has been used mostly to describe and accentuate this sense of movement. The only line drawn to describe the back is a short, dark line that pronounces the curve of the back as the figure steps forward, its darkness accentuating this movement. The small...

## Create A Cube On A Perspective Grid

Once you have determined the width and depth of the cube in perspective, as seen in the diagram above, it's easy to transform this into a three-dimensional cube. The first thing to determine is the height of the cube that you would like to draw. This is achieved by drawing two vertical lines starting on the two front corners of your cube to the determined height. In this case, it's an arbitrary height. The next step is to connect the two tops of the vertical lines A and B with a horizontal...

## Practice to Develop Your Style

Humans perceive reality in terms of relationships between shapes of tone. The junction where one shape of tone meets another is evident as the edge of an object meeting another edge. Early humans perceived this and in their desire to give representation to this phenomenon of the edge of one object meeting another edge, visually, they drew a line. With a leap of creativity, early humans invented a language for a visual shorthand, which to this day is still practiced by artists in a multitude of...

While one-point perspective was most often used by artists throughout history, it is more common for artists to view reality in two-point perspective. Two-point perspective takes into account an object's visible side angles versus the face-on appearance of an object in one-point perspective. For this reason, it is important to understand the rules of two-point perspective and to see, when applied well, what a useful vantage point it is for creating very interesting art. Introduction to...

This is a continuation of the drawing starting from page 250. The chair that the model is sitting on has been defined here. Some additional shading was added to the side plane of the thigh and to the center area of the lower back. The artist did not make this area too dark in tone, as there is still light on this area however, the light is not as strong as the light on the upper back. Now you can see the development of the foot. The ankle-bone is defined by shading around the protruding bone...

## In the Studio

In this chapter, you will learn about the objects and pointers that we, as artists, have come to rely on in our studio environment. Our years of experience will help you avoid the practical pitfalls you may come across while drawing. Ample Space Types of Easels Mirror Use Where to Buy . 29 Lighting is an extremely important aspect of drawing to consider. Drawing is about what you see and how you see your subject. Light is the most important element of drawing because it reveals the structure of...

Now that the drawing of the subject is more advanced, you can focus attention on developing the drawing tonally. As mentioned earlier in this chapter, this will be a high-keyed drawing by focusing on the lightest half of the tonal range, from white to about 50-percent gray. This means that you will have to gradually and selectively develop the darker areas of your subject. By pushing most of the tones toward the light end of the tonal spectrum, notice how you can create the illusion of a dark...

## Drawing the Human Figure

There is no greater pleasure or challenge in the world of art than to draw the human figure. In this chapter, you will be introduced to various approaches to drawing this very special subject. Set Up the Model Light the Light Reveals the Copy Works of Art in Find Your Guidelines . ' 236 Examples of Foreshortening 240 Find the Gesture of the Pose Quick Sketches 244 Add a Color to Your Paper 248 Gallery . Human Figure Drawing the human figure is an excellent way to improve and expand on your...

## Gallery One Point Perspectives continued

Although this image is a painting, it is included here because it displays the artist's knowledge of perspective. Once you have mastered the rules of perspective, you can create a believable space such as this. One-point perspective is used to dramatic effect to suggest the wide, lonely, seemingly never-ending road of a Texas town. The painting has a precision of drawing objects in perspective which adds to its very believable sense of realism. Through its accuracy, you can get a very clear...

## Acknowledgments

We hope we have created a book which will inspire the reader, through the ideas and imagery presented, to find the process of becoming a skilled artist less frustrating and more enjoyable. We would like to acknowledge the contribution of all the artists who took part in this project by generously allowing us to reproduce their work. Also, thanks to our editors Pam Mourouzis and Donna Wright from Wiley Publishing for their friendliness and patience during this process. Flatness into Form An...

## The Horizon Line

The objects on this table are below the horizon line. The horizon line eye level of the viewer is the level where all of the sides or lines of the objects that are perpendicular to the viewer converge. Judge accurately, with your eye, the level of your horizon line and place a mark on the wall behind the still life. It is good to place a mark somewhere, so that you do not become confused and forget where it is. You can also mark your eye level on a stick and place the stick next to your setup,...

## Day at the Museum continued

This Greek sculpture of a male torso from 450-400 BC has a freshness, vitality, and degree of realism that completely transcends the passage of time. An important aspect of its vitality is the subtle lateral swaying motion of the sculpture. The sketch was executed with an HB pencil and a kneaded eraser. The line around the figure was intentionally varied to help capture the rhythm of the figure. Copy after a Greek statue, by Dean Fisher Copy after a Greek statue, by Dean Fisher This drawing of...

## The Nuts and Bolts of Landscape Drawing

Many of us are inspired by the overwhelming beauty of the natural world. However, you may find that once you are in the landscape, the subject, with its vastness and complexity, is very difficult to scale down to a sketchbook-sized image. For this reason, one of the most useful tools of the landscape artist is a viewfinder. A viewfinder is to the artist what looking through a camera's viewfinder is to the photographer. It's a way of isolating a subject and seeing how the arrangement of the big...

## The Thumbnail Sketch

The thumbnail sketch is a very small sketch approximately 2 x 2 of your subject as you are viewing it through your viewfinder. The purpose of this type of preliminary sketch is to visualize how your subject will look once you begin drawing it larger on your paper. Because of the simplicity and rapidity of execution, these sketches are very useful for experimenting with the arrangement of your subject within the format of your paper. It is recommended that you do two or three thumbnail sketches...

## Facial Features

It's important to have a clear understanding of the forms and proportions of the nose. It is often the area of the face that is closest to the viewer, and therefore, it has to be rendered with clarity. If clarity of form is achieved, the nose becomes a device that brings this part of the face closer to the viewer spatially, allowing the other parts of the face to recede. With a view of the nose from this angle a , you can see some of the distinct surfaces, or planes, of the nose. The underside...

## Index

Accuracy in drawing, 111, 128, 179 aerial perspective, 102, 270-271, 278 Alberti, Leon Battista, 72 anatomical awareness, 204-205, 232 angles cast drawing, 175-176 finding, preparing to draw, 46-47 planar rendering, 156 two-point perspective, 96, 98-99 animated models. See modeling armature, 125 artificial light, 22, 24, 35 artistic intent, 121 art stores, 29 background. See foreground and background barn, two-point perspective demonstration, 104-113 cast drawing, 175, 187 defined, 278 human...

## What Is Drawing

Here, in this short introduction, the authors introduce ideas and motivations as to why they are attracted to the art of drawing. Flatness into Form An Introduction from Dean Fisher . . . Drawn to Create An Introduction from Josephine Robinson A Gallery of Drawings to Inspire You Flatness into Form An Introduction from Dean Fisher The creation of the illusion of reality on a flat, blank surface always has and still fascinates me as an artist. With some good...

## The Facets of Form

As we lead up to drawing the human head and figure in subsequent chapters, which can be intimidating subjects for the student because of their complexity, here are some ideas that will help you break down objects into simplified facets. Notice how the addition of gradated tone impacts a greater level or realism to the object. As an exercise, try rendering basic objects like the pot pictured below as a series of planes. As you gain confidence, move on to more complicated forms such as a shell,...

## Draw a Barn in Two Point Perspective continued

Now that all of the large forms are in their correct perspective and look solid and lit, it's time to give the drawing a sense of completion. Adding the subtle nuances in tone and incidental details in each area imparts a sense of texture. Notice how breaking up the large area of tone in our drawing that represents the grass, by drawing some individual clumps of grass in a few areas, begins to create a sense of focus it also helps the illusion of dimension by bringing the foreground closer to...

## Greek Torso Sculpture

While Dean was in art school, he was fortunate to have several plaster casts to work from. Eventually, he could draw two of them from memory because he had drawn them dozens of times. Both were anatomical casts made by nineteenth-century sculptors One was of the planes of the human head, and the other was a life-sized sculpture depicting the musculature of the human body. The drawings on pages 170-173 are the result of a day that the authors spent in the Antique Sculpture rooms at the...

## Discover the Pattern of Light and Shadow

In this chapter, you will learn very simple ways of establishing the shape of light and shadow areas in your drawings. You will also learn how to achieve the illusion of three-dimensionality. The techniques in this chapter are used to create a reductive or tonal drawing, as the shape or pattern of light is removed from previously toned paper. A beautiful oval-shaped vase is used for many of the drawing examples because it has a simple round form, which lends itself well to the principles being...

## Draw a Plaster Cast

The drawing of sculptures and plaster casts is a tried-and-true exercise that has been practiced by artists for centuries. It is the perfect bridge between drawing a still life and a portrait or human figure. The Tradition of Plaster Cast Drawing 168 A Day at the Plaster Cast Drawing in Charcoal 174 Gallery Plaster Cast At the heart of the Renaissance, there was a revival of and fascination with the proportion, form, and beauty of ancient Greco-Roman sculpture. Artists of the time steeped...

## Prepare to Draw

In this chapter, you will be introduced to methods that help you to simplify the process of drawing. You will learn how to light and situate your subject so it will be easier to understand and to draw. You will also be shown a method of drawing that is concerned with drawing shapes rather than lines. This will help you to understand how to draw your subject three-dimensionally on your flat, one-dimensional sheet of paper. Finally, you will consider and look at a variety of marks which can add...

## A Palm Frond

In this section, you can see four different approaches to drawing a portion of the palm frond. These are only a few of the many ways that you can approach this subject using line drawing. Notice how each of the examples creates an entirely different effect from the others. This drawing was made with a thin, black ball-point pen. There was a conscious effort to keep the pen on the paper, with one unbroken uniform line, while drawing each individual palm frond. The pattern of positive and...

## Appendix

Aristides Classical Atelier Cast drawing after an unknown nineteenth century artist's rendition of Moses, p. 185 Cast drawing after Charles Barque's Belvedere Torso, p. 188 Cast drawing of the head of the Callipygian Venus, p. 186 Cast drawing of the hand of Michelangelo's David, p. 187 Cast drawing after a Greek sculpture of Venus, p. 187 Figure Study, p. 125 Portrait of Jorge, p. 223 Portrait of Andrea Quaratesi, p. 8 Jacob Collins www.jacobcollinspaintings.com The Artist's Mother, p. 193...