## Complex Forms in Light

To the layman the rendering of form with light on it seems little short of miraculous. He is likely to talk about your great talent and how lucky you arc to have been born with it. The truth is that lie is unable to distinguish talent from plain observation and knowledge, ile has never really analyzed the way light works on form, though he has learned to recognize and accept the proper effect. When we point out that an indentation causes halftone and shadow, he may shake his head, but let there...

## The circle and the cylinder

By means of the divided square and the cube, we can draw the circle and the cylinder. We use a compass to draw the circle. The circle in perspective becomes an ellipse, We can draw the ellipse quite accurately by using the divided square drawn in perspective. This is valuable in drawing all round or cylindrical forms. By A ifc L& poHo s kc quarters of e Sf are, we a *esfrtecf co iose cowers otcck fke xccdffe of f ce foarsic es. pfactx apat t fi& ff a> a< Jtehoeett A WB, coe cast jud e...

## Doco to scae a verticalaxd a forezotapaste

Je Must first edaffsf a yerfedattda fow ostfaf H& tzru j-ty (. t& , foucrtctrij eacft offcer- attijfd anyfes, fpoijtt zero). Ok foffc Itne J ate zy out so < jcl< z a ts to represent a feet. ftieSeze oftz XJ-cct tf opicopta. . 7t< e Itorizoit if ten set ofany desiredjket fd OH ffte vertical neczJ-urisuf te. dtert ertdft'sA a vezttisAifcy> yx> dd oh Aonzo t. Connectpowtr O, ttawt A to VR FsfaeCtstt optional c epttt of dee first fooi. TAes-c drtxw ftiCes from attfot ottfs toioard...

## Simple Projection

This is a simple but very valuable bit of working practical for sxich things as lettering in perspec- knowledge, Any drawing or design can be tive, wall and floor designs, or placement of any squared off and projected in perspective on design in any flat plane of your subject, either a vertical or a horizontal plane. This is TO LOCATE. POINT INTHe O ICN, L TTTI .R. THE LIN J IN ONE DIRECTION AND Nl> Mt> ri THEM IM THE other, THy E3 IX 1H i1. CENTEROf CIRCLE. TO LOCATE. POINT INTHe O ICN, L...

## Ke ftfaarey off of rairdphre tme draueteq aforef es made seMpterf

Efhzp tfkiMy two measure poe etr, eve to fee eftcwdo ee to tkenftct of tke wfecaf scats. 7 te ear comer of tfee t& cm if dropped Ae emtke fafa torn mit of tiespicture, 6atf m Me tore r& M fa sca e areprojected e p to ftee tase itftes of the floor y anwectix.a few toffee too mew* cn& f poese r. fje ike cese o dcayorcdf, tie c& K mart offpefH& ucektf ecttils. The importance of being able to scale inside walls and floors should be obvious to anyone interested in good drawing. When...

## The Figure in Light

For some reason many students seem to have their greatest difficulty in what they call shading. This is probably because there is no such thing as shading, in the sense they mean. The term modeling is more accurate. The student wants to add tone lo outline, so he is likely to put in a lot of meaningless grays and darks between the outlines. What lie must do with tone is the same thing the sculptor docs. The shadow is a tone that is governed in the first place by the value in the light. Things...

## Architects

In this drawing we have a rather complicated ground plan. But remembering that any form can be built within a box, we mate use of this truth to simplify the rendering in perspective of this odd shape. We are concerned here with setting the ground plan on the ground plane, using a single over-ail height for the building. ft coMtoftcai amp f exteriors of uif lt ff t lt ps, aff i isiofts musfte exfencfecf fo t te asetnes, or ffce rtestofu cA - a out to ifce fa o poififs frortt f te frost c amp...

## Cyooddramx efres olft a sercJc orsiMjoe basic forms

a A i te pane form ef ai csAecL coe c amp K test bucldok Jt surface forces. defuse fortt t cue pfawistudy carefully co tal e yM does as ffrare s across f te surfaces, HotcH fke zr-easa lcqfcfs kaffdotos CZttol sAezclocd. lines or contours, and the flat side for shading or grays. For the effcet, see page 24. The drawings in this book were done with the Eagle Pencil Company's Prismacolor Black 395 to obtain good blacks for reproduction, since all dots on a line cut must be black. Different...

## Means Of Diagonals

Things as units of rug designs, fence posts, telephone poles, trains, window panes, blocks in sidewalks, building blocks, bricks, roofing, wallpapers, etc. 7 re c i amp yotta r of units o t a yerhca jo gjcke cue amp oft z p amp rj amp eHC tcu as- e tf tz M krouxf f ffte t ajfctsAttt pout -of kaf p atte. Eifker di lt 2cfoH amp tttay gt amp uf amp cf. fvp tee or tike azse zke. 'Mir was-frs o Fffte texf ot faf o iknwoA. t gt 2,z jGt, Every artist should know how to draw to a scale. Scale drawings...

## Looking a way from the Light Source

The angle of light is determined by lines drawn to a point placed directly below the vanishing point of shadows. Any object may be squared off in the way shown in the picture of the tree at the right above and the squares projected to the ground plane. If you consider the tree as a flat design in a squared-off block, the contours of the tree arc projected to the ground plane. These define the shadow.

## Diagonals In Singlepoint Perspective

Although we do not need ail the diagonals for purposes of measurement, we should know how to choose the ones we need. It is very important to understand what is meant by a single-point perspective and two-point perspective and how the planes and their diagonals operate in each. The basic plan for single-point e zfi'cajor cmqp art of SiK fe -poitdjpeftpecfive Single-point perspective exists when the base lines of the objects or planes in the picture are parallel to...

## Successful D

ALL DRAWING STEMS FROM ONE OR MORE OF THESE FORMS r- Art is really having its chance. The urge to raw seems to have taken hold of many more thousands today than ever before- 11 has spread across the nation. While many are interested in art as a pastime or hobby, others would gladly choose it as a means of livelihood if they were convinced that their ability was sufficient to provide any real hope of success. There will always be a certain amount of confusion about what is talent or native...

## Pezceef eow owzrtc e outils YAMTA

Ix t poi rtj oft iJte AonxoJt sittee PROJECTING A SOLID TO ANY POINT ON THE GROUND PLANK Since any object can be constructed within a block, the method shown on this page will enable you to duplicate any object for placement at any other spot on the ground plane. The pro portions will he correct according to position and distance from the first object. The plan is to draw the block first and then the object within the block. Draty a cubes to tkesawe riqk axJ leff vtWifktKy points rofj toa r ox....

## How To Draw A Curved Surface In Perspective

The problem of drawing a curved surface in correct perspective is often puzzling. A simple solution is offered below. A ground plan is made, which can be scaled off in units, from which the curve can then be put into perspective fay oaf aplandfke casre. Stock foffw if one nits. Mark a pot tilwkerever ffte uris crofferike oy zorfaf. Place f wi arpow tke yroienctp lt zn ktd out mperspediye. Je sef fftepf amp n on fke yr amp tondpfane a fke crutaf wanner, n eifker- sfn te or two -p Oinf...

## Uphill

Figures on level planes are always scaled to the true horizon, as shown at A and B where the figures are stationed on a level crossing. Figures in windows or on balconies are scaled the same way. It is important to know how to draw a stairway in correct perspective and how to project figures upon any step. This is not difficult to do. The plane of the stairway locatcs all die points of the risers. The treads all have the same vanishing point on the horizon. Scale the height of the...

## Using a Manikin for the Study of Anatomy

The best way to study anatomy is to set up a book of anatomical diagrams before you, and set up an art-Store manikin alongside it. Draw tlie action from the manikin and the muscles from the book. You can also make rough sketches of the manikin itself for general bulk and action only, Just copying anatomical diagrams does not seem very helpful to most students. The muscles must somehow be built upon a frame or figure in order to get their proportion and relationship to the figure as a whole. The...

## The Rule for Scaling Figures on the Ground Plane

All figures of the same height, when standing the horizon at the same vertical point on the on the same ground plane, will be crossed by figure, When we know that an inclined plane has a horizon and vanishing points which are used in the same manner as those of a level plane, seal-ing figures on an inclined plane becomes much simpler. So long as the entire plane has the same slant, the perspective is worked out in the manner shown in the diagram below. The diagram shows all the necessary...

## Applying Light on Form to Comics

If you are interested in comics, here is where you can have a lot of furi. Once you get the feel of light on form, and learn the way light operates, you can add light and realism to your humorous drawings. Suppose you have drawn a sphere in its normal effect of light and shadow. Now begin to add forms to the surface of the sphere. You do not have to finish the sphere first, but for a change draw some bumps on it. This principle was presented in my earlier book, Fun With a Pencil, but in line...

## Unequal Spacing Of Solids In Perspective

Measurement of unequal depths in perspective an angle can be attached to any object, thus becomes very simple if we use a vertical and a setting up a scale of measurement for all van- horizontal scale. The scale is a right angle at- able heights and widths, tached to the near comer of the first block. Such Hou o draw uk s ofratrca e dcPKestfiortf ftperrpec 7 poittf tr er o gt f j ce lt ort er d ot-oyec Hre amp JUrettntr f ro amp i ke Aorix amp ft a amp e ase te lt f - te cav f. tf sffoaJd be p...

## Light On The Basic Forms

Light and shadow are sharply defined and positive. Oil sphere B, the modeling is very gradual with no sharp definition. The lighting on A is characteristic of sunlight or direct artificial lights that on B of light from the sky without direct sunlight on the object, or of the popular indirect or diffused lighting. The difference in these effects must be taken into consideration by the artist. The whole pic-tine should have the effect of one or the other. If one thing casts a shadow, all things...

## Common Errors In Perspective

Distortion results from having both vanishing points within the field of vision, or too close to the object. If the object has a right angle at the near comer, the base lines must make an angle greater than a right angle on the drawing, since a right angle can not be represented by anything less than a right angle. The drawing below shows tills common error. I'tutwA inffce jm ftc ffoifti a , tej amp nte Aotixotc. Too few artists follow the simple plan of project- to scale any vertical unit or...

## Light un the Basic For ins

When the artist leaves the study of line and seeks to combine light and shadow, Construction and contour, ho steps into i new world. IT is drawings begin to take on a quality of existence, for through light and shadow we delineate form, and all the visible world is only light on form. lkit nature, until her ways and laws arc understood, can seem so complex as to be almost overpowering. Usually her forms arc surfaced with endless variations of texture, and the relationship of her forms, as well...

## Aff ah fo ike mmskimjpout ft tis case fAerieivpoi JiftrecfpepeiidiaJzt

0fee re fjze Btw sef base fttte. fiecfuce areas d square fee fif dia c t amp fs, Scaling the ground plane for two-point perspec- scalc is practical when placed at the near corner tive requires the usual two vanishing points set of the first square. The horizon can be set at any wide apart. The horizontal scale is set on or be- height you choose, low the bottom line of the picture. The vertical 7 te vertical rcaJe cast jbe projected o Gjttf poitti OH, ke froicrtdplane qr amp uxd ud . Uxi f of...

## Cccir across ffte cftaofazs coAccfc fteps cs z cfraw efse

To draw a circle in perspective, we first lay out a divided square. We draw the arcs around the four sides, making the stcs cut just short of the halfway points between A and B. Now by drawing ellipses on the top and bottom sides of a cube or block, we construct a cylinder in perspective. The vanishing points for a small object should be spaced wide apart. For large objects, they can be spaced cli gt ser. The cone is built on the circle in perspective, and the circle in perspective is of course...

## Perspective In The Figure

No matter how much you know of anatomy and the cons true lion of the figure, you will not be abJe to draw figures from imagination until you can relate the different parts of the figure to a horizon or eye level. Sometimes it is helpful to think of the various forms as they would appear as blocks square instead of round. Then round them out. vres ox. Hu-spo e are dradn. o - At A-or-izox gt e ow Perspective ajiii foot ieacL tjoiL ko lo drauJ Ike figure, bul you cast never draw d tuiikoai...

## Simple Projection In Perspective

Here is a very simple method of projecting dimensions and spacings in perspective. The top drawing shows the front and side elevations of a house. The dimensions of these create a vertical and a horizontal scale. The horizontal spac ings are projected to the base lines by means of two measuring points. The vertical spacings arc transferred to the vertical scale of the perspective drawing and projected to the vanishing points. firs c raw Ae fro et attcf S tYe e eva. amp OHf ofajbaiM Hq oftzfcy...