## Height Twothirds Of Overall Square

THE EYE OF TRAINING THE EYE FOR PROPORTIONS The use of a square also helps greatly in arriving at the proportions of architectural objects. In this drawing it was found that the church nearly fitted into a square. The tower was about one-fourth the width of the square, touching the middle line. The rest of the church fell just under the middle of the square. The tower shows about 3 squares of facing and the roof about 2Vi squares, the units of the roof being just a little smaller than the tower...

## V

Afar ic at Nagent by Raoul Dufy, bignou gallery, new york city. Dufy, in this ccntury, has furthered the impressionist tradition truth, hut expresses it in his own terms. To be outstanding the painter must strive to do the same thing. He will never stir up much commotion if he paints the obvious in the obvious manner. People are not interested in reproductions of what they can see for themselves with their own eyes. Or if they are, then the chances are they would rather look at photographs.,...

## Beauty Of Subject

In painting for beauty we have two courses open to us. One is to give a beautiful interpretation and rendering of a subject, regardless of the material, and the other is to seek material which we consider beautiful in itself. The latter seems the more obvious choice. But what counts in the end is the amount of beauty the artist can see and interpret. Among the work of the great masters we find the extremes. Rubens sought beauty on a grandiose scale while Chardin, for instance, with his still...

## Glass Graph

TRAINING THE EYE FOR PROPORTION Set down two points to indicate height of the object. Measure ihe width and compare with the height (point W). Indicate the width at half-point of the height (AB). This gives the mid-point of the rectangle which surrounds the object (--). Divide the height and width into fourths (--). Make a mental note of how such dividing lines would appear in front of the object. Now note how the contours would appear in this mental graph. Try to set down the general shapes in...

## The Basic Values Of The Landscape

Sidelight sky is the 3. Looking wilh the light into the light, the sky is lightest, the ground next, sky lowered for bright- painted as light as pos- uprights next. Paint light- ness of clouds. Ground is sible. All other values are ed areas somewhat lighter slightly lower in tone than painted a tone or two low- and shadows just a bit sky. The values are closer, er than you see them. darker than seen. softer. Wc must remember that our pigment range of light to dark is...

## See And Mentally Draw The Image Of A Closefitting Box As You Study The Form Before You It Will Help To Establish True

Ever, I doubt if a close imitation of his style would sell today. McClelland Barclay used strong outline in his later work to good effect, as did Herbert Paus, but the appeal in the work of these men really came from design, pattern, and color. There are many styles between true painting and good drawing which are used by commercial artists. The danger lies in being tricky, rather than doing work of basic excellence. Tricky approaches can be easily copied or plagiarized, whereas pictures based...

## Get Full Range Of Values

TRAINING THE EYE TO SEE THE FORM WITHIN CONTOURS The difference between good and had drawing or painting is not always in contour and detail, as many think, but in the way the subject has been seen. If one looks only at contours and detail, the drawing may come out like the tree and the head shown at left of the above illustration.We must learn to look for the masses and values that define the form light, halftone, and shadow as they occur on form. Sometimes we must go even further and attempt...

## Values Of Light

The intrinsic quality of a painting, taking everything into account, is chiefly determined by the quality of the light. This quality, of course, is the result of a combination of factors in the whole execution of the subject, but its importance lies in the fact that it gives existence to the picture in relation to life itself. When the light is right we never question a painting's reason for being. In order to achieve such quality we must focus our attention on light itself. This means that we...

## Fingers

Draftsman, whereas Van Gogh and the impressionists were great colorists, their drawing having little to do with the success of their work. It is not often that a generation will produce a man who excels in every department of art, or one who produces work having all the combined elements of beauty. Da Vinci was remarkable in this respect, and so of course was Michelangelo, whose paintings and sculptures were equally masterful. When we understand this we can have a great deal more tolerance than...

## A

A man who employs such freedom in his spare-time experiments may easily find that he can apply some of his personal discoveries in his everyday work, and thus improve it. There is one thing we must not do, and that is to let time go by without doing anything. Nothing can lead to such frustration and discouragement. One may be tempted to look forward to the day when one is rid of present responsibilities with nothing but idle freedom ahead, but idle freedom is its own worst enemy. Where there is...

## Simplicity And How To Achieve It

Our aim for simplicity and clarity must logically start with the subject itself, in choosing our subject we should first consider how effective it would be in a small sketch, say no larger than 5 by 7 inches. Could the material be set down in a sketch of that size Could it be done without using a very tine brush or would some of the important details be too small If it is impossible to make a small sketch without infinite labor, then we can be pretty sure we are starting off on the wrong foot....

## What Shall Paint

Superfluous as this question may sound, it poses the biggest problem an artist faces. One reason many artists prefer commercial work is that the subject is usually settled upon before the artist is called in. In most cases there is material to work from, at least in the form of layouts, sketches, and theme. If the artist is required to prepare his own working material, he has but to call in his model, get out his camera, go to his files for suggestions, and then proceed with the job. This...

## Figure With Shawl George Grosz

Individuality, and, if you allow it to do so, it will get into your work subconsciously. It is much like handwriting, of which no two specimens are exactly alike. The best advice I can offer is to paint what you see as you sec it. And if you can suggest an object or a scene so that it is convincing, that may even be better than completely boning it out. Tn a landscape, for instance, a lightly skctchcd-in lig-ure can often look more alive and real than one that has been painted in great detail....

## Organization And Grouping

The complexity unci overabundance of form, texture, and material in nature is frustrating and confusing unless some attempt is made to bring about order. This means simplification, elimination, and grouping into pattern. 1'he two pictures at left show literal renderings of a landscape as they might appear in a photograph the versions at right show how organization of the same forms results in a better picture. Storm by Dean Fausett, kraushaar galleries, new york city. The sky is ordinarily the...

## How To Use A Finder For The Best Results

MAKE A SLIDING BOX AROUND THEM. DRILL BOX AND STICKS FOR BOLT AND WINGED NUT. THIS IS FOR CONVENIENCE IN CARRYING. SET UP STICK IN GROUND AND THUMBTACK FINDER IN DESIRED POSITION ON STICK. A small finder held fairly close to the eye is excellent for finding subjects. However, once a subject is decided upon, it is more helpful to have one with an opening exactly the same size as your sketch. This can be thumbtacked to a stick next to the sketchbox. Place this so the two...

## Uoj

Young Woman by Isabel Bishop, midtown galleries, new york city. In figure studies, hands are often troublesome, and while you certainly can't eliminate them, you can sometimes simplify the problem by suggesting fingers in an impressionistic manner, or painting a hand with the fingers closed Rehearsal on the Stage by Edgar Degas, metropolitan museum of art, new york. city. Degas was a great in aster of pattern, color, and design. He did not hesitate to let a figure disappear under the frame if...

## Texture

Texlurc, sinco it is a matter of surface, is more, closely related to character than it is to form. Light delineates texture as it does form, and its reflection on a surface creates color. Without light there is no color. While color can always be applied in smooth flat tones on the canvas, the rendering of different textures requires a variety of brushes and techniques. However, texture can often be suggested rather than copied in a detailed manner. If we follow the effect of a texlurc in...

## Look For Block Forms

With diffused light tlie gradations of light to shadow are much more subtle and have less contrast. The important tiling is to choose the kind of lighting that will make our subjects most beautiful and suit the composition we have chosen to make. When the light can be controlled, it is a good idea to experiment with the material at hand under different degrees and angles of light before you start to paint. If you are making a simple design or pattern, direct front...

## 1

The glory of the sunset, or long shadows cast over while snow. It can be the hot and dazzling brilliance of the desert, the fury of the surf, a lazy stream rippling in a gentle breeze. There are flowers to brighten a wall, birds in gorgeous plumage, villages nestled in the valleys. Getting into the spirit is finding the emotions in a subject, and trying to set them down with paint on canvas. This is something you alone can feel and do and no one else can tell you how. But the emotion becomes...